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Creators=Jarrod Anderson In the 5th century, the Roman Empire was collapsing and barbarians threatened civilization. In Britain, a teenager named Patrick was living a comfortable life as the son of a government official. Despite being part of the Roman Catholic Church, his faith didn't mean anything to him until he was kidnapped by pirates at the age of 16 and enslaved at the edge of the known world - Ireland. For 6 years Patrick was forced to work as a shepherd and was driven to the brink of starvation. It was there that he turned to his Christian faith and through divine intervention managed to escape. He was reunited with his family in Britain only to have a prophetic dream calling him to take Christianity back to the land of his captivity. Against the wishes of his family and the Church, Patrick returned as a missionary bishop to Ireland and converted thousands to Christianity. He opposed slavers, Irish kings, and possibly druids but nothing compared to the hostility he faced from his fellow Christians. After a close friend exposed a dark secret of Patrick's, it is believed he was ordered to leave his mission and return to Britain. Patrick had to choose - obey God or obey man? 1 hour 30Minute country=USA genre=Adventure.

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This was recommended to me two days after I found out my Dad has Pancreatic Cancer 😞 just like Patrick had. But my Dad isnt a young fit man like Patrick was. Please pray for him.
St. Patrick of Ireland is one of the world's most popular saints. He was born in Roman Britain and when he was fourteen or so, he was captured by Irish pirates during a raiding party and taken to Ireland as a slave to herd and tend sheep. At the time, Ireland was a land of Druids and pagans but Patrick turned to God and wrote his memoir, The Confession. In The Confession, he wrote: "The love of God and his fear grew in me more and more, as did the faith, and my soul was rosed, so that, in a single day, I have said as many as a hundred prayers and in the night, nearly the same. I prayed in the woods and on the mountain, even before dawn. I felt no hurt from the snow or ice or rain. " Patrick's captivity lasted until he was twenty, when he escaped after having a dream from God in which he was told to leave Ireland by going to the coast. There he found some sailors who took him back to Britain and was reunited with his family. A few years after returning home, Patrick saw a vision he described in his memoir: "I saw a man coming, as it were from Ireland. His name was Victoricus, and he carried many letters, and he gave me one of them. I read the heading: 'The Voice of the Irish. ' As I began the letter, I imagined in that moment that I heard the voice of those very people who were near the wood of Foclut, which is beside the western sea-and they cried out, as with one voice: 'We appeal to you, holy servant boy, to come and walk among us. '" The vision prompted his studies for the priesthood. He was ordained by St. Germanus, the Bishop of Auxerre, whom he had studied under for years, and was later ordained a bishop and sent to take the Gospel to Ireland. Patrick arrived in Slane, Ireland on March 25, 433. There are several legends about what happened next, with the most prominent claiming he met the chieftan of one of the druid tribes, who tried to kill him. After an intervention from God, Patrick was able to convert the chieftain and preach the Gospel throughout Ireland. There, he converted many people -eventually thousands - and he began building churches across the country. He often used shamrocks to explain the Holy Trinity and entire kingdoms were eventually converted to Christianity after hearing Patrick's message. Patrick preached and converted all of Ireland for 40 years. He worked many miracles and wrote of his love for God in Confessions. After years of living in poverty, traveling and enduring much suffering he died March 17, 461. He died at Saul, where he had built the first Irish church. He is believed to be buried in Down Cathedral, Downpatrick. His grave was marked in 1990 with a granite stone. In His Footsteps: Patrick was a humble, pious, gentle man, whose love and total devotion to and trust in God should be a shining example to each of us. So complete was his trust in God, and of the importance of his mission, he feared nothing -not even death. "The Breastplate, " Patrick's poem of faith and trust in God: "Christ be within me, Christ behind me, Christ before me, Christ beside me, Christ to win me, Christ to comfort and restore me, Christ beneath me, Christ above me, Christ inquired, Christ in danger, Christ in hearts of all that love me, Christ in mouth of friend and stranger. ".
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Reasons to NOT care for St. Patrick`s. Free download i am patrick 2017. Free Download I Am patrick sébastien. Free download i am patrick de. To this day there has never been a more handsome face on scene with such charisma. Free Download I Am patrick harris. I am patrick swayze free download. Free download i am patrick video. Saint Patrick, The Beloved Patron Saint of Ireland Each year we celebrate the life and death of the patron saint of Ireland for the sake of celebrating a man most people know very little about. What we do know - or think we know - is based on half-facts that are few and far between. The details about Saint Patrick's life that we assume to be true comes from two writings by Patrick himself (well, probably written by Patrick). These writings are called, "The Autobiographical Confession" and the "Indignant Letter". "The Indignant Letter was a letter written to a man involved in the slave trading by the name of Coroticus. The Irish Saint Who Was British: Near the end of the fourth century in Wales, Patrick was born in England to a rather wealthy family. Patrick's father was a Christian deacon, a Roman official. However, it is most widely believed that his family was not particularly religious; instead, his father took on the role of church deacon for tax purposes alone. Around the tender age of sixteen, the British born patron saint of Ireland, was taken into captivity be Irish seafaring men during a plundering upon his families estate. His captors took him to Ireland where he was sold as a slave. Patrick remained a slave for over six years. Terrified and alone, Patrick worked in the fields of Ireland tending sheep. His only solace was found in his faith in God. Before long, Patrick became a very devout Christian. It was during this several years of captivity that Patrick began having visions about converting the Pagans in Ireland to Christianity. In these visions, Patrick said the people of Ireland were calling out to him for help. In his writings, he recalls the voice of the Irish people in his vision saying, "Patrick, come walk among us once again. " Visions From God: One vision and then another would come to Patrick. He became quite haunted by these visions. These visions, according to Patrick, was how he managed to escape from the people who had taken him to Ireland against his will. Patrick believed that the voice speaking to him in a dream telling him that it was time to take leave from Ireland was the voice of God. Patrick obeyed the voice he believed to be God's and made the 200 mile walk from County Mayo, where he was held prisoner, to the Irish coast. Finally, Patrick was reunited with his family. Soon after his return home, Patrick claimed to receive yet more visions from God. This time, God had sent an angel in Patrick's dream that instructed him to return to Ireland to do missionary works. Immediately, Patrick began training for the mission God had asked him to carry out. After fifteen years of religious studies, Patrick was ordained and sent to Ireland. His duty was to minister to the Christians already living in Ireland and to convert the Pagans of Ireland to Christianity. Most lore and legend is not very factual when speaking on Saint Patrick and his works in Ireland. We're usually told that he returned to Ireland to convert the entire island to Christianity as all those dwelling there were Pagans. In reality, Saint Patrick did not introduce Christianity to Ireland - while Paganism was the prominent religion at the time, Christianity was known and practiced there by many before he ever stepped foot upon Irish soil. The Genius of Saint Patrick: Bonfires, Shamrocks and Crosses Meet. Patrick knew the people of Ireland from his forced stay there. He knew the language, the attitudes, the religion, the ceremonies, the practices, the holidays, etc. Being under the impression that the Irish could be a bit stubborn, Patrick came up with the rather genius idea of incorporating these familiar holidays and practices into Christianity. The Pagans had long worshiped many of their Gods with the element of fire. And so, Patrick decided that the Christian holy holiday of Easter would also include fire - a bonfire. The shamrock was special to the Pagans. The three-leafed clover had special religi ous value as the number three signified the work of their deities and the balance within both life and nature. It was also seen as a food for livestock. Saint Patrick used the shamrock to explain the holy trinity to Pagans. Each of the three leaves of the shamrock represented its own portion of the trinity – the father, the son and the holy ghost. The lovely Celtic Cross should be rightfully attributed to Saint Patrick as well. The Celtic or Pagan Sun God's symbol superimposed upon the Christian cross was another mingling of religions that Patrick used to help convert Ireland to Christianity. Banishing Snakes from Ireland: The legend goes that Patrick is responsible for riding the entirety of Ireland of snakes. With only his familiar ash walking stick in hand, The Patron Saint of Ireland stood alone upon the hillside that is now called Croagh Patrick. With enough force to make the sound of thunder, Patrick pounded his stick upon the ground. Patrick ordered all of the snakes off the island and into the sea. The snakes obeyed. Every snake in Ireland slithered from wherever they were lying and made their way into the waters surrounding Ireland just as Patrick had ordered. One interesting story tells of Patrick's cleverness when one snake attempts to stand against the order of diving into the water. Patrick handcrafted a box and offered the snake to crawl inside. The snake refused. He was loud, boisterous and far too proud, saying, "I am a mighty snake. I would not be able to fit myself into such a small box. " The two argued. Patrick declared it was well possible, the snake disagreed. Eventually, out of total frustration, the snake decided to prove his point to Patrick. Of course, the only way to do this was to slither his way into the box. As soon as the snake was inside, Patrick closed the door of the box and tossed it into the sea. The truth of the matter is, Patrick did no such thing. Science has proved that snakes simply have never existed in post-glacial Ireland. The largest accepted scientific theory is that when the natural geological shift of the earth split Ireland apart from the mainland, the snakes took a rather intense hit. They never recovered and the population simply died out. Another quite feasible theory is "snakes" were never intended to mean literal slithering creatures, but rather the term "snakes" was used to indicate the evil Christians believed to be true about Pagans. By converting all of Ireland from Paganism to Christianity, Saint Patrick would have removed all the evil (aka, snakes) from Ireland. The classic tale of good triumphing over evil. The story of Saint Patrick should not be taken as a "lie", but rather with a smile at the lovely culture that has always been found in Ireland. Exaggerations are born as the spoken culture passed down their stories to the next generation. Remember, this is the same culture fairies, pots of gold at the end of the rainbow and leprechauns come from. Saint Patrick's Day Patrick died on March 17, 461 after many long years of poverty and suffering in the name of his faith. He breathed his last breath at Saul, where he had built the first church at the beginnings of his ministry to Ireland. Patrick was never actually canonized by The Catholic Church, but rather was on the list of the first saints ever to be released by the church. Each year on March 17 th, we all become Irish. In our green shirts, we raise our green mugs and toast the patron saint of Ireland, partaking in the feast day that is Saint Patrick's. What Saint Patrick did or did not do is really as unimportant as who wears the most shamrocks this year. What is important is the brilliant culture and storytelling that Ireland is known and loved for lives on. And in that, so does Patrick – in whichever form the storyteller decides to give.

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St. Patrick’s Day is upon us, and with it the celebrations and occasional controversies associated with the eponymous patron saint of Ireland—the distinctly non-Irish missionary credited with converting the Emerald Isle to Christianity in the fifth century. The Irish around the world will mark the anniversary of Patrick’s death this weekend with parades, concerts, poetry readings and lectures, only some of which will bear any relation to the saint’s life and work. Thanks to the size and cultural power of the Irish diaspora, these annual rituals have transformed Patrick into a saintly superstar of global significance....

He would be 430 years old. Who watched this on saint Patricks Day. St. Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland, wasn't Irish, never banished the Emerald Island of snakes, and wasn't even named Patrick. Flickr The life of St. Patrick is filled with outlandish myths and folklore, though what is known to be true might be stranger than the fiction. We’re all very familiar with St. Patrick’s Day — even if most of the memories we accrue on March 17 are lost to the ether by March 18. The purpose and aesthetic are quite clear, however: to drink beer, wear green, and celebrate the saint who rid Ireland of its snakes. From shamrocks and leprechauns to the isle’s slithering infestation eradicated through prayer, the iconography and religious symbolism of St. Patrick have permeated the U. K. and America’s culture now for several centuries. But who was this Saint who is said to have performed miracles? It’s high time to take a look at St. Patrick himself to distinguish supposed fact from commonly accepted fiction. The Early Life Of St. Patrick Only two historical records that are commonly accepted as being authored by St. Patrick have survived. These texts are the only primary sources on St. Patrick and they are the Declaration ( Confessio in Latin) and the Letter to the soldiers of Coroticus. In these, St. Patrick himself describes his life. For starters, Patrick was probably not even Irish — and Patrick wasn’t even his real name. Ireland’s patron saint was actually born named Maewyn Succat in the late 300s A. D. in a town in Roman Britain called Venta Berniae, otherwise known as Bannaventa Berniae or Bannavem Taburniae, which is actually believed to have been somewhere in modern-day Wales by some accounts. Though this point is hotly debated among scholars, St. Patrick was nonetheless not a born Irishman. Though he begins his Confessio by proclaiming “My name is Patrick, ” the young man was previously known to others as “Magonus, ” “Succetus, ” and then “Cothirthiacus” before he was renamed “Patricius” or “Padrig” once he was baptized. Wikimedia Commons A stained glass window illustration of St. Patrick in the Saint Patrick Catholic Church. Junction City, Ohio. Patrick’s father, Calpurnius, was a deacon in the Christian church which was in its fairly nascent stages at the time. The future saint, however, wasn’t very religious as a youth. As he described in his own writings, his home was wealthy and comfortable but that life came to a bitter end when he and a group of his people were captured by Irish pirates. Patrick was just 16 years old then, and soon after this debacle developed a strong faith. These pirates weren’t merely looters or lawbreaking vagabonds, but actual slave traders. Patrick was to be sold as a slave in Ireland. Patrick was forced to labor as a shepherd for six full years. It was during this period that he made the decision to convert to Christianity. As his own writings revealed, he was “humbled every day by hunger and nakedness” during his six years tending cattle. He began a voracious prayer routine. According to his Declaration, he prayed 100 times per day. Patrick was also naturally enveloped by the language and culture of Ireland, picking up and instilling both before making his first escape attempt to Britain. St. Patrick Discovers His Early Faith One night, as St. Patrick wrote, a strange voice called to him and said, “Look, your ship is ready! ” He felt this divine intervention meant that the time had come for him to make a break from his bondage. He trekked 200 miles to Ireland’s east coast and pleaded to come aboard a Britain-bound ship. The pagan captain, however, didn’t quite trust Patrick. He demanded that St. Patrick “suck his breasts” as a sign of his submission to the captain’s authority. Patrick allegedly refused to do so and instead tried to convert the ship’s crew to Christianity at which point, the captain relented and allowed him passage. After three days at sea, St. Patrick landed in Britain and his shipmates wandered a “wilderness” for 28 days, exhausted from starvation, while Patrick prayed for food. When a wild boar appeared shortly after, the group’s faith in Patrick’s connection to God grew substantially. Patrick, himself, had another divine dream during this time that Satan tested his faith by dropping a boulder on him. Trapped and crushed under its weight until dawn, he called out “Helias! ” Surely, the Greek sun-god would help. Suddenly, the rock disappeared. “I believe that I was helped by Christ the Lord, ” he later wrote. Wikimedia Commons The purported gravestone of St. Patrick in the churchyard of Down Cathedral. Downpatrick, Ireland. Patrick would be visited again by the divine in another vision once he was able to return home a few years later. This vision urged him to fulfill his God-given purpose: as a missionary in the pagan lands of Ireland, where he was once held hostage. “I saw a man coming, as it were from Ireland. His name was Victorious, and he carried many letters, and he gave me one of them. I read the heading: ‘The Voice of the Irish. ’ As I began the letter, I imagined in that moment that I heard the voice of those very people who were near the wood of Foclut, which is beside the western sea — and they cried out, as with one voice: ‘We appeal to you, holy servant boy, to come and walk among us. '” Thus, Patrick began his training as a bishop and returned to Ireland. Wikimedia Commons Chicago dyes the Chicago River green each year in celebration of St. Patrick’s Day. While the green color itself is certainly historically relevant, green beer is not. Return To Ireland Spreading Christianity around Ireland wasn’t easy for Patrick. His preaching was not welcomed and he was forced to operate mainly on small islands off the Irish coast. “Every day there is the chance that I will be killed, or surrounded, or taken into slavery, ” he wrote. But Patrick’s fellow Christians felt his struggles on Ireland were justified. A few years into Patrick’s religious mission, his fellow bishops became aware of a story about Patrick that seemed to have haunted the man for years. From what, exactly, this mysterious guilt stemmed has never been clearly understood — but Patrick wasn’t pleased to hear that his colleagues had learned of and were now gossiping about it. “They brought up against me after thirty years something I had already confessed…some things I had done one day — rather, in one hour, when I was young, ” he wrote. Whether his trespasses consisted of financial gain from his devotees, worship of forbidden idols or some youthful sexual experimentation will likely never be known. Regardless, Patrick’s colleagues thus came to feel that his struggles in Ireland — as a slave and then as a missionary — were penance for this deed. Wikimedia Commons A woodcut of Ireland’s patron saint in the Nuremberg Chronicle of 1493. Patrick did eventually begin to amass a substantial following and moved onto the mainland once he was able. While the size of his congregation isn’t generally agreed upon — some gauge it around 100, 000 — Patrick did baptize thousands of people during his time in Ireland. Patrick also ordained new priests and helped women to become nuns, converted the sons of regional kings, and helped form more than 300 churches. This, arguably, was the phase that brought him from a mere man of faith to the mythical St. Patrick we celebrate today. Indeed, people began mythologizing the man through literary legends and folklore even in his own time. What Did St. Patrick Do To Become A Legend? Even two centuries after his death, the people hungered for fantastical stories about St. Patrick that weren’t included in his own writings. Naturally, followers crafted with some pretty outlandish escapades. Footage courtesy of Pathé of the London Irish Rifles receiving shamrocks on St. Patrick’s Day between 1914 and 1918. One legend dating to 700 A. describes Patrick’s duels with Irish religious figureheads called druids. These spiritual leaders insulted the patron saint and attempted to poison him and engage him magical duels. The story was filled with spells that manipulated the weather, had characters survive blazing infernos, and had both sides destroy the other’s sacred texts. In the climax, one druid blasphemed the Christian God which then led St. Patrick to use his might and magic to send the druid flying into the heavens. When he landed, his skull split open, and the sacrilegious druids were defeated. A National Geographic segment on why we celebrate St. Patrick’s Day. An alternate legend from around the same time saw Patrick fasting on a mountain for 40 days. His exhaustion and hunger made him mad. He cried, threw things around, and childishly refused to descend until an angel sent by God granted him some grandiose demands. Patrick commanded that the angel make it so he redeemed more souls from hell than any other saint and that he alone could judge Irish sinners at the end of times instead of God, himself. Finally, he asked that the English would never rule Ireland. Of course, that last demand clearly showed the agenda of those who authored the legend at the time. But the manner in which modern society celebrates the man is arguably even more preposterous. Unfounded Myths Of St. Patrick’s Day Legend has it that Patrick himself implemented the Shamrock in his teachings, using the three-leaf clover to relay to the Irish the concept of the Christian Holy Trinity. Though this is entirely unfounded. Another ubiquitous yet utterly unfounded assertion is that Patrick somehow banished all of the snakes from Ireland — even though there were none there to begin with. Reptiles never migrated across the prehistoric land bridge that connected Ireland to mainland Europe. Library of Congress One of the most popular fables to this day is that St. Patrick prayed all of Ireland’s snakes off the island, even though they never migrated to the country in the first place. Finally, it is time to debunk the celebration of the Saint himself. St. Patrick’s day began as a religious celebration in the 1600s. It both marked the patron saint’s death on March 17, 461 A. D., as well as commemorated his arrival in Ireland. Often referred to as “St. Patrick’s Feast Day” it has since become something else entirely. While this may have been how celebrations started, it’s certainly not how they’ve ended up today. This cultural shift began in the early 18th century when Irish immigrants transported the tradition to the early American colonies. St. Patrick quickly became the immediate, go-to symbol of Irish culture and heritage and was arguably brought into mainstream recognition all the more by symbols like the clover and even leprechauns. The very first St. Patrick’s Day parade in the U. S. was held in Boston in 1737. Shortly after that, parades were held in most cities with a healthy Irish population. With the enormous groundswell of Irish immigration to America in the 19th century, of course, it practically became a party that anyone — Irish or not — happily participated in. Wikimedia Commons The St. Patrick’s Day parade strolls down Fifth Avenue, 170 years after the first one in Boston. 1907. In 1903, St. Patrick’s Day became a national holiday in Ireland. The day is now celebrated all over the globe. But as we’ve seen, leprechauns and green beer have nothing to do with St. Patrick — but celebrating the heritage of the Irish does. As Rev. Jack Ward, a Baltimore Irish-American priest said with a hearty chuckle to Baltimore Magazine: “Drinking green beer doesn’t make you Irish, it just makes you pee. Real Irish men and women have a place in their heart for St. Patrick. ” After learning about St. Patrick and the legacy he inspired, read about how Mother Teresa was perhaps more harmful than good. Then, learn about the seven most unusual religious rituals and beliefs.

Free download i am patrick s day. Thank you, is it possible to find this TV movie subtitled in French. Título original I Am Patrick: The Patron Saint of Ireland Año 2020 País Estados Unidos Dirección Jarrod Anderson Guion Música Rob Pottorf Fotografía Colm Hogan Reparto Documentary, John Rhys-Davies, Robert McCormack, Seán T. Ó Meallaigh, Ailbhe Cowley, John Paul O'Driscoll, Michael Cloke, Claire Richardson, Jed Murray, Darrach O'Duibh, Adam Traynor, Shane O'Regan, Shane G. Casey, Shane Casey, Jesse Morris, Joseph Duggan, James Keogh Productora NorthStar Studios. Distribuida por Christian Broadcasting Network Género Documental Sinopsis Documental que indaga en la leyenda y el mito para contar la historia verdadera de San Patricio. (FILMAFFINITY) Tu crítica Votaciones de almas gemelas Regístrate y podrás acceder a recomendaciones personalizadas según tus gustos de cine Votaciones de tus amigos Regístrate y podrás acceder a todas las votaciones de tus amigos, familiares, etc. Si alguna sinopsis cuenta demasiados detalles del argumento -o para corregir errores o completar datos de la ficha o fecha de estreno- puedes mandarnos un mensaje. Si no estás registrad@ puedes contactarnos vía Twitter, FB o por email a info -arroba- filmaffinity -punto- com. Los derechos de propiedad intelectual de las críticas corresponden a los correspondientes críticos y/o medios de comunicación de los que han sido extraídos. Filmaffinity no tiene relación alguna con el productor, productora o el director de la película. El copyright del poster, carátula, fotogramas, fotografías e imágenes de cada DVD, VOD, Blu-ray, tráiler y banda sonora original (BSO) pertenecen a las correspondientes productoras y/o distribuidoras.

Saint Patrick Stained-glass window of St. Patrick from Saint Patrick Catholic Church, Junction City, Ohio Born Roman Britain Venerated in Catholic Church Eastern Orthodox Church Anglican Communion Lutheran Churches Major shrine Armagh, Northern Ireland Glastonbury Abbey, England Feast 17 March ( Saint Patrick's Day) Patronage Ireland, Nigeria, Montserrat, Archdiocese of New York, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Newark, Boston, Rolla, Missouri, Loíza, Puerto Rico, Murcia (Spain), Clann Giolla Phádraig, engineers, paralegals, Archdiocese of Melbourne; invoked against snakes, sins [1] Saint Patrick ( Latin: Patricius; Irish: Pádraig [ˈpˠaːd̪ˠɾˠəɟ]; Welsh: Padrig) was a fifth-century Romano-British Christian missionary and bishop in Ireland. Known as the "Apostle of Ireland", he is the primary patron saint of Ireland, the other patron saints being Brigit of Kildare and Columba. He is venerated in the Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Lutheran Churches, the Old Catholic Church, and in the Eastern Orthodox Church as equal-to-the-apostles and Enlightener of Ireland. [2] The dates of Patrick's life cannot be fixed with certainty, but there is broad agreement that he was active as a missionary in Ireland during the fifth century. Nevertheless, as the most recent biography [3] on Patrick shows, a late fourth-century date for the saint is not impossible. [4] Early medieval tradition credits him with being the first bishop of Armagh and Primate of Ireland, and regards him as the founder of Christianity in Ireland, converting a society practising a form of Celtic polytheism. He has been generally so regarded ever since, despite evidence of some earlier Christian presence in Ireland. According to the autobiographical Confessio of Patrick, when he was about 16, he was captured by Irish pirates from his home in Britain and taken as a slave to Ireland, looking after animals; he lived there for six years before escaping and returning to his family. After becoming a cleric, he returned to northern and western Ireland. In later life, he served as a bishop, but little is known about the places where he worked. By the seventh century, he had already come to be revered as the patron saint of Ireland. Saint Patrick's Day is observed on 17 March, the supposed date of his death. It is celebrated inside and outside Ireland as a religious and cultural holiday. In the dioceses of Ireland, it is both a solemnity and a holy day of obligation; it is also a celebration of Ireland itself. Sources Two Latin works survive which are generally accepted as having been written by St. Patrick. These are the Declaration ( Latin: Confessio) [5] and the Letter to the soldiers of Coroticus ( Latin: Epistola), [6] from which come the only generally accepted details of his life. [7] The Declaration is the more biographical of the two. In it, Patrick gives a short account of his life and his mission. Most available details of his life are from subsequent hagiographies and annals, which have considerable value but lack the empiricism scholars depend on today. [8] Name The only name that Patrick uses for himself in his own writings is Pātricius [paːˈtrɪʊs], which gives Old Irish Pátraic [ˈpaːtraiɡʲ] and Modern Irish Pádraig ( [ˈpˠaːd̪ˠɾˠəɟ]); English Patrick; Welsh Padrig; Cornish Petroc. Hagiography records other names he is said to have borne. Tírechán 's seventh-century Collectanea gives: "Magonus, that is, famous; Succetus, that is, god of war; Patricius, that is, father of the citizens; Cothirthiacus, because he served four houses of druids. " [9] "Magonus" appears in the ninth century Historia Brittonum as Maun, descending from British *Magunos, meaning "servant-lad". [9] "Succetus", which also appears in Muirchú moccu Machtheni 's seventh century Life as Sochet, [9] is identified by Mac Neill as "a word of British origin meaning swineherd". [10] Cothirthiacus also appears as Cothraige in the 8th century biographical poem known as Fiacc's Hymn and a variety of other spellings elsewhere, and is taken to represent a Primitive Irish *Qatrikias, although this is disputed. Harvey argues that Cothraige "has the form of a classic Old Irish tribal (and therefore place-) name", noting that Ail Coithrigi is a name for the Rock of Cashel, and the place-names Cothrugu and Catrige are attested in Counties Antrim and Carlow. [11] Dating The reputed burial place of Saint Patrick in Downpatrick The dates of Patrick's life are uncertain; there are conflicting traditions regarding the year of his death. His own writings provide no evidence for any dating more precise than the 5th century generally. His Biblical quotations are a mixture of the Old Latin version and the Vulgate, completed in the early 5th century, suggesting he was writing "at the point of transition from Old Latin to Vulgate", [12] although it is possible the Vulgate readings may have been added later, replacing earlier readings. [13] The Letter to Coroticus implies that the Franks were still pagans at the time of writing: [14] their conversion to Christianity is dated to the period 496–508. [15] The Irish annals for the fifth century date Patrick's arrival in Ireland at 432, but they were compiled in the mid 6th century at the earliest. [14] The date 432 was probably chosen to minimise the contribution of Palladius, who was known to have been sent to Ireland in 431, and maximise that of Patrick. [16] A variety of dates are given for his death. In 457 "the elder Patrick" ( Irish: Patraic Sen) is said to have died: this may refer to the death of Palladius, who according to the Book of Armagh was also called Patrick. [16] In 461/2 the annals say that "Here some record the repose of Patrick"; [17]: 19 in 492/3 they record the death of "Patrick, the arch-apostle (or archbishop and apostle) of the Scoti", on 17 March, at the age of 120. [17]: 31 While some modern historians [18] accept the earlier date of c. 460 for Patrick's death, scholars of early Irish history tend to prefer a later date, c. 493. Supporting the later date, the annals record that in 553 "the relics of Patrick were placed sixty years after his death in a shrine by Colum Cille " (emphasis added). [19] The death of Patrick's disciple Mochta is dated in the annals to 535 or 537, [19] [20] and the early hagiographies "all bring Patrick into contact with persons whose obits occur at the end of the fifth century or the beginning of the sixth". [21] However, E. A. Thompson argues that none of the dates given for Patrick's death in the Annals are reliable. [22] A recent biography argues that a late fourth-century date for the saint is not impossible. [23]: 34–35 "Two Patricks" theory Irish academic T. F. O'Rahilly proposed the "Two Patricks" theory, [24] which suggests that many of the traditions later attached to Saint Patrick actually concerned the aforementioned Palladius, who Prosper of Aquitaine 's Chronicle says was sent by Pope Celestine I as the first bishop to Irish Christians in 431. Palladius was not the only early cleric in Ireland at this time. The Irish-born Saint Ciarán of Saigir lived in the later fourth century (352–402) and was the first bishop of Ossory. Ciaran, along with saints Auxilius, Secundinus and Iserninus, is also associated with early churches in Munster and Leinster. By this reading, Palladius was active in Ireland until the 460s. [25] Prosper associates Palladius' appointment with the visits of Germanus of Auxerre to Britain to suppress Pelagianism and it has been suggested that Palladius and his colleagues were sent to Ireland to ensure that exiled Pelagians did not establish themselves among the Irish Christians. The appointment of Palladius and his fellow-bishops was not obviously a mission to convert the Irish, but more probably intended to minister to existing Christian communities in Ireland. [26] The sites of churches associated with Palladius and his colleagues are close to royal centres of the period: Secundus is remembered by Dunshaughlin, County Meath, close to the Hill of Tara which is associated with the High King of Ireland; Killashee, County Kildare, close to Naas with links with the kings of Leinster, is probably named for Auxilius. This activity was limited to the southern half of Ireland, and there is no evidence for them in Ulster or Connacht. [27] Although the evidence for contacts with Gaul is clear, the borrowings from Latin into Old Irish show that links with Roman Britain were many. [28] Iserninus, who appears to be of the generation of Palladius, is thought to have been a Briton, and is associated with the lands of the Uí Ceinnselaig in Leinster. The Palladian mission should not be contrasted with later "British" missions, but forms a part of them; [29] nor can the work of Palladius be uncritically equated with that of Saint Patrick, as was once traditional. [24] Life Patrick was born in Roman Britain. His birthplace is not known with any certainty; some traditions place it in England—one identifying it as Glannoventa (modern Ravenglass in Cumbria) [30] —but claims have also been advanced for locations in both present-day Scotland [31] and Wales. [32] His father, Calpurnius, was a decurion and deacon, his grandfather Potitus was a priest from Bonaven Tabernia, [33] Patrick, however, was not an active believer. According to the Confession of Saint Patrick, at the age of sixteen he was captured by a group of Irish pirates. [34] They took him to Ireland where he was enslaved and held captive for six years. Patrick writes in the Confession [34] that the time he spent in captivity was critical to his spiritual development. He explains that the Lord had mercy on his youth and ignorance, and afforded him the opportunity to be forgiven his sins and convert to Christianity. While in captivity, he worked as a shepherd and strengthened his relationship with God through prayer, eventually leading him to convert to Christianity. [34] After six years of captivity he heard a voice telling him that he would soon go home, and then that his ship was ready. Fleeing his master, he travelled to a port, two hundred miles away, [35] where he found a ship and with difficulty persuaded the captain to take him. After three days' sailing, they landed, presumably in Britain, and apparently all left the ship, walking for 28 days in a "wilderness" and becoming faint from hunger. After Patrick prayed for sustenance, they encountered a herd of wild boar; [36] since this was shortly after Patrick had urged them to put their faith in God, his prestige in the group was greatly increased. After various adventures, he returned home to his family, now in his early twenties. [37] After returning home to Britain, Patrick continued to study Christianity. Patrick recounts that he had a vision a few years after returning home: I saw a man coming, as it were from Ireland. His name was Victoricus, and he carried many letters, and he gave me one of them. I read the heading: "The Voice of the Irish". As I began the letter, I imagined in that moment that I heard the voice of those very people who were near the wood of Foclut, which is beside the western sea—and they cried out, as with one voice: "We appeal to you, holy servant boy, to come and walk among us. " [38] A. B. E. Hood suggests that the Victoricus of St. Patrick's vision may be identified with Saint Victricius, bishop of Rouen in the late fourth century, who had visited Britain in an official capacity in 396. [39] However, Ludwig Bieler disagrees. [40] He studied in Europe principally at Auxerre, but is thought to have visited the Marmoutier Abbey, Tours and to have received the tonsure at Lérins Abbey. Saint Germanus of Auxerre, a bishop of the Western Church, ordained him to the priesthood. [41] [42] Acting on his vision, Patrick returned to Ireland as a Christian missionary. [34] According to J. Bury, his landing place was Wicklow, Co. Wicklow, at the mouth of the river Inver-dea, which is now called the Vartry. [43] Bury suggests that Wicklow was also the port through which Patrick made his escape after his six years' captivity, though he offers only circumstantial evidence to support this. [44] Tradition has it that Patrick was not welcomed by the locals and was forced to leave and seek a more welcoming landing place further north. He rested for some days at the islands off the Skerries coast, one of which still retains the name of Inis-Patrick. The first sanctuary dedicated by Patrick was at Saul. Shortly thereafter Benin (or Benignus), son of the chieftain Secsnen, joined Patrick's group. [42] Much of the Declaration concerns charges made against Patrick by his fellow Christians at a trial. What these charges were, he does not say explicitly, but he writes that he returned the gifts which wealthy women gave him, did not accept payment for baptisms, nor for ordaining priests, and indeed paid for many gifts to kings and judges, and paid for the sons of chiefs to accompany him. It is concluded, therefore, that he was accused of some sort of financial impropriety, and perhaps of having obtained his bishopric in Ireland with personal gain in mind. [45] The condemnation might have contributed to his decision to return to Ireland. According to Patrick’s most recent biographer, Roy Flechner, the Confessio was written in part as a defence against his detractors, who did not believe that he was taken to Ireland as a slave, despite Patrick’s vigorous insistence that he was. [46] Patrick eventually returned to Ireland, probably settling in the west of the island, where, in later life, he became a bishop and ordained subordinate clerics. From this same evidence, something can be seen of Patrick's mission. He writes that he "baptised thousands of people". [47] He ordained priests to lead the new Christian communities. He converted wealthy women, some of whom became nuns in the face of family opposition. He also dealt with the sons of kings, converting them too. [48] The Confessio is generally vague about the details of his work in Ireland, though giving some specific instances. This is partly because, as he says at points, he was writing for a local audience of Christians who knew him and his work. There are several mentions of travelling around the island, and of sometimes difficult interactions with the ruling elite. He does claim of the Irish: Never before did they know of God except to serve idols and unclean things. But now, they have become the people of the Lord, and are called children of God. The sons and daughters of the leaders of the Irish are seen to be monks and virgins of Christ! [49] Patrick's position as a foreigner in Ireland was not an easy one. His refusal to accept gifts from kings placed him outside the normal ties of kinship, fosterage and affinity. Legally he was without protection, and he says that he was on one occasion beaten, robbed of all he had, and put in chains, perhaps awaiting execution. [50] Patrick says that he was also "many years later" a captive for 60 days, without giving details. [51] Murchiú's life of Saint Patrick contains a supposed prophecy by the druids which gives an impression of how Patrick and other Christian missionaries were seen by those hostile to them: Across the sea will come Adze -head, [52] crazed in the head, his cloak with hole for the head, his stick bent in the head. He will chant impieties from a table in the front of his house; all his people will answer: "so be it, so be it. " [53] The second piece of evidence that comes from Patrick's life is the Letter to Coroticus or Letter to the Soldiers of Coroticus, written after a first remonstrance was received with ridicule and insult. In this, Patrick writes [54] an open letter announcing that he has excommunicated Coroticus because he had taken some of Patrick's converts into slavery while raiding in Ireland. The letter describes the followers of Coroticus as "fellow citizens of the devils" and "associates of the Scots [of Dalriada and later Argyll] and Apostate Picts ". [55] Based largely on an eighth-century gloss, Coroticus is taken to be King Ceretic of Alt Clut. [56] Thompson however proposed that based on the evidence it is more likely that Coroticus was a British Roman living in Ireland. [57] It has been suggested that it was the sending of this letter which provoked the trial which Patrick mentions in the Confession. [58] Seventh-century writings An early document which is silent concerning Patrick is the letter of Columbanus to Pope Boniface IV of about 613. Columbanus writes that Ireland's Christianity "was first handed to us by you, the successors of the holy apostles", apparently referring to Palladius only, and ignoring Patrick. [59] Writing on the Easter controversy in 632 or 633, Cummian—it is uncertain whether this is Cumméne Fota, associated with Clonfert, or Cumméne Find —does refer to Patrick, calling him "our papa"; that is, pope or primate. [60] Two works by late seventh-century hagiographers of Patrick have survived. These are the writings of Tírechán and the Vita sancti Patricii of Muirchú moccu Machtheni. [61] Both writers relied upon an earlier work, now lost, the Book of Ultán. [62] This Ultán, probably the same person as Ultan of Ardbraccan, was Tírechán's foster-father. His obituary is given in the Annals of Ulster under the year 657. [63] These works thus date from a century and a half after Patrick's death. Tírechán writes, "I found four names for Patrick written in the book of Ultán, bishop of the tribe of Conchobar: holy Magonus (that is, "famous"); Succetus (that is, the god of war); Patricius (that is, father of the citizens); Cothirtiacus (because he served four houses of druids). " [64] Muirchu records much the same information, adding that "[h]is mother was named Concessa". [65] The name Cothirtiacus, however, is simply the Latinized form of Old Irish Cothraige, which is the Q-Celtic form of Latin Patricius. [66] The Patrick portrayed by Tírechán and Muirchu is a martial figure, who contests with druids, overthrows pagan idols, and curses kings and kingdoms. [67] On occasion, their accounts contradict Patrick's own writings: Tírechán states that Patrick accepted gifts from female converts although Patrick himself flatly denies this. However, the emphasis Tírechán and Muirchu placed on female converts, and in particular royal and noble women who became nuns, is thought to be a genuine insight into Patrick's work of conversion. Patrick also worked with the unfree and the poor, encouraging them to vows of monastic chastity. Tírechán's account suggests that many early Patrician churches were combined with nunneries founded by Patrick's noble female converts. [68] The martial Patrick found in Tírechán and Muirchu, and in later accounts, echoes similar figures found during the conversion of the Roman Empire to Christianity. It may be doubted whether such accounts are an accurate representation of Patrick's time, although such violent events may well have occurred as Christians gained in strength and numbers. [69] Much of the detail supplied by Tírechán and Muirchu, in particular the churches established by Patrick, and the monasteries founded by his converts, may relate to the situation in the seventh century, when the churches which claimed ties to Patrick, and in particular Armagh, were expanding their influence throughout Ireland in competition with the church of Kildare. In the same period, Wilfred, Archbishop of York, claimed to speak, as metropolitan archbishop, "for all the northern part of Britain and of Ireland" at a council held in Rome in the time of Pope Agatho, thus claiming jurisdiction over the Irish church. [70] Other presumed early materials include the Irish annals, which contain records from the Chronicle of Ireland. These sources have conflated Palladius and Patrick. [71] Another early document is the so-called First Synod of Saint Patrick. This is a seventh-century document, once, but no longer, taken as to contain a fifth-century original text. It apparently collects the results of several early synods, and represents an era when pagans were still a major force in Ireland. The introduction attributes it to Patrick, Auxilius, and Iserninus, a claim which "cannot be taken at face value. " [72] Patrick uses shamrock in an illustrative parable Patrick depicted with shamrock in detail of stained glass window in St. Benin's Church, Kilbennan, County Galway, Ireland Legend credits Patrick with teaching the Irish about the doctrine of the Holy Trinity by showing people the shamrock, a three-leafed plant, using it to illustrate the Christian teaching of three persons in one God. [73] [74] This story first appears in writing in 1726, though it may be older. The shamrock has since become a central symbol for Saint Patrick's Day. In pagan Ireland, three was a significant number and the Irish had many triple deities, a fact that may have aided Patrick in his evangelisation efforts when he "held up a shamrock and discoursed on the Christian Trinity". [75] [76] Patricia Monaghan says there is no evidence that the shamrock was sacred to the pagan Irish. [75] However, Jack Santino speculates that it may have represented the regenerative powers of nature, and was recast in a Christian context. Icons of St Patrick often depict the saint "with a cross in one hand and a sprig of shamrocks in the other". [77] Roger Homan writes, "We can perhaps see St Patrick drawing upon the visual concept of the triskele when he uses the shamrock to explain the Trinity". [78] Patrick banishes all snakes from Ireland The absence of snakes in Ireland has been noted from as early as the third century by Gaius Julius Solinus, but later legend has attributed the banishment of all reptiles from the island to Patrick. As Roy Flechner shows in his biography, the earliest text to mention an Irish saint banishing snakes from Ireland is in fact the Life of Saint Columba (chapter 3. 23), written in the late seventh or early eighth century. [79] The earliest written record of a legend about Patrick ridding Ireland of venomous creatures date to the thirteenth century by Gerald of Wales, who expressed scepticism about the veracity of the story. [80] The more familiar version of the legend is given by Jocelyn of Furness, who says that the snakes had all been banished by Patrick [81] chasing them into the sea after they attacked him during a 40-day fast he was undertaking on top of a hill. [82] The hagiographic theme of banishing snakes may draw on the Biblical account of the staff of the prophet Moses. In Exodus 7:8–7:13, Moses and Aaron use their staffs in their struggle with Pharaoh's sorcerers, the staffs of each side turning into snakes. Aaron's snake-staff prevails by consuming the other snakes. [83] Patrick banishing the snakes However, all evidence suggests that post-glacial Ireland never had snakes. [82] "At no time has there ever been any suggestion of snakes in Ireland, so [there was] nothing for St. Patrick to banish", says naturalist Nigel Monaghan, keeper of natural history at the National Museum of Ireland in Dublin, who has searched extensively through Irish fossil collections and records. [82] The snakes, rather, were a metaphor for the druids, whom Patrick is said to have driven out of Ireland when he established Christianity there. [84] Patrick's walking stick grows into a living tree Some Irish legends involve the Oilliphéist, the Caoránach, and the Copóg Phádraig. During his evangelising journey back to Ireland from his parents' home, he is understood to have carried with him an ash wood walking stick or staff. He thrust this stick into the ground wherever he was evangelising and at the place now known as Aspatria (ash of Patrick), the message of the dogma took so long to get through to the people there that the stick had taken root by the time he was ready to move on. Patrick speaks with ancient Irish ancestors The twelfth-century work Acallam na Senórach tells of Patrick being met by two ancient warriors, Caílte mac Rónáin and Oisín, during his evangelical travels. The two were once members of Fionn mac Cumhaill 's warrior band the Fianna, and somehow survived to Patrick's time. [85] In the work St. Patrick seeks to convert the warriors to Christianity, while they defend their pagan past. The heroic pagan lifestyle of the warriors, of fighting and feasting and living close to nature, is contrasted with the more peaceful, but unheroic and non-sensual life offered by Christianity. [ citation needed] Folk piety The version of the details of his life generally accepted by modern scholars, [ dubious – discuss] as elaborated by later sources, popular writers and folk piety, typically [ improper synthesis? ] includes extra details such that Patrick, originally named Maewyn Succat, was born in 387 AD in (among other candidate locations, see above) Banna venta Berniae [86] to the parents Calpernius and Conchessa. At the age of 16 in 403 AD Patrick was captured and enslaved by the Irish and was sent to Ireland to serve as a slave herding and tending sheep in Dalriada. [87] During his time in captivity Patrick became fluent in the Irish language and culture. After six years, Patrick escaped captivity after hearing a voice urging him to travel to a distant port where a ship would be waiting to take him back to Britain. [88] On his way back to Britain, Patrick was captured again and spent 60 days in captivity in Tours, France. During his short captivity within France, Patrick learned about French monasticism. At the end of his second captivity Patrick had a vision of Victoricus giving him the quest of bringing Christianity to Ireland. [89] Following his second captivity Patrick returned to Ireland and, using the knowledge of Irish language and culture that he had gained during his first captivity, brought Christianity and monasticism to Ireland in the form of more than 300 churches and over 100, 000 Irish baptised. [90] According to the Annals of the Four Masters, an early-modern compilation of earlier annals, his corpse soon became an object of conflict in the Battle for the Body of Saint Patrick ( Cath Coirp Naomh Padraic): The Uí Néill and the Airgíalla attempted to bring it to Armagh; the Ulaid tried to keep it for themselves. When the Uí Néill and the Airgíalla came to a certain water, the river swelled against them so that they were not able to cross it. When the flood had subsided the Ui Neill and the Ulaid united on terms of peace, to bring the body of Patrick with them. It appeared to each of them that each had the body conveying it to their respective territories. The body of Patrick was afterwards interred at Dun Da Lethglas with great honour and veneration; and during the twelve nights that the religious seniors were watching the body with psalms and hymns, it was not night in Magh Inis or the neighbouring lands, as they thought, but as if it were the full undarkened light of day. [91] Abduction reinterpreted According to Patrick's own account, it was Irish raiders who brought him to Ireland where he was enslaved and held captive for six years. [92] However, a recent alternative interpretation of Patrick's departure to Ireland suggests that, as the son of a decurion, he would have been obliged by Roman law to serve on the town council ( curia), but chose instead to abscond from the onerous obligations of this office by fleeing abroad, as many others in his position had done in what has become known as the 'flight of the curiales '. [93] Roy Flechner also asserts the improbability of an escape from servitude and journey of the kind that Patrick purports to have undertaken. He also draws attention to the biblical allusions in Patrick's own account (e. g. the theme of freedom after six years of servitude in Exod. 21:2 or Jer. 34:14), which imply that perhaps parts of the account may not have been intended to be understood literally. [94] Saint Patrick's crosses Patrick showing cross pattée on his robes There are two main types of crosses associated with Patrick, the cross pattée and the Saltire. The cross pattée is the more traditional association, while the association with the saltire dates from 1783 and the Order of St. Patrick. The cross pattée has long been associated with Patrick, for reasons that are uncertain. One possible reason is that bishops' mitres in Ecclesiastical heraldry often appear surmounted by a cross pattée. [95] [96] An example of this can be seen on the old crest of the Brothers of St. [97] As Patrick was the founding bishop of the Irish church, the symbol may have become associated with him. Patrick is traditionally portrayed in the vestments of a bishop, and his mitre and garments are often decorated with a cross pattée. [98] [99] [100] [101] [102] The cross pattée retains its link to Patrick to the present day. For example, it appears on the coat of arms of both the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Armagh [103] and the Church of Ireland Archdiocese of Armagh. [104] This is on account of Patrick being regarded as the first bishop of the Diocese of Armagh. It is also used by Down District Council which has its headquarters in Downpatrick, the reputed burial place of Patrick. Saint Patrick's Saltire is a red saltire on a white field. It is used in the insignia of the Order of Saint Patrick, established in 1783, and after the Acts of Union 1800 it was combined with the Saint George's Cross of England and the Saint Andrew's Cross of Scotland to form the Union Flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. A saltire was intermittently used as a symbol of Ireland from the seventeenth century, but without reference to Patrick. Traditional Saint Patrick's Day badges from the early twentieth century, from the Museum of Country Life, Castlebar It was formerly a common custom to wear a cross made of paper or ribbon on St Patrick's Day. Surviving examples of such badges come in many colours [105] and they were worn upright rather than as saltires. [106] Thomas Dinely, an English traveller in Ireland in 1681, remarked that "the Irish of all stations and condicõns were crosses in their hatts, some of pins, some of green ribbon. " [107] Jonathan Swift, writing to " Stella " of Saint Patrick's Day 1713, said " the Mall was so full of crosses that I thought all the world was Irish". [108] In the 1740s, the badges pinned were multicoloured interlaced fabric. [109] In the 1820s, they were only worn by children, with simple multicoloured daisy patterns. [109] [110] In the 1890s, they were almost extinct, and a simple green Greek cross inscribed in a circle of paper (similar to the Ballina crest pictured). [111] The Irish Times in 1935 reported they were still sold in poorer parts of Dublin, but fewer than those of previous years "some in velvet or embroidered silk or poplin, with the gold paper cross entwined with shamrocks and ribbons". [112] Saint Patrick's Bell The Shrine of St. Patrick's Bell The National Museum of Ireland in Dublin possesses a bell ( Clog Phádraig) [113] [115] first mentioned, according to the Annals of Ulster, in the Book of Cuanu in the year 552. The bell was part of a collection of "relics of Patrick" removed from his tomb sixty years after his death by Colum Cille to be used as relics. The bell is described as "The Bell of the Testament", one of three relics of "precious minna" (extremely valuable items), of which the other two are described as Patrick's goblet and "The Angels Gospel". Colum Cille is described to have been under the direction of an "Angel" for whom he sent the goblet to Down, the bell to Armagh, and kept possession of the Angel's Gospel for himself. The name Angels Gospel is given to the book because it was supposed that Colum Cille received it from the angel's hand. A stir was caused in 1044 when two kings, in some dispute over the bell, went on spates of prisoner taking and cattle theft. The annals make one more apparent reference to the bell when chronicling a death, of 1356: "Solomon Ua Mellain, The Keeper of The Bell of the Testament, protector, rested in Christ. " The bell was encased in a "bell shrine", a distinctive Irish type of reliquary made for it, as an inscription records, by King Domnall Ua Lochlainn sometime between 1091 and 1105. The shrine is an important example of the final, Viking-influenced, style of Irish Celtic art, with intricate Urnes style decoration in gold and silver. The Gaelic inscription on the shrine also records the name of the maker "U INMAINEN" (which translates to "Noonan"), "who with his sons enriched/decorated it"; metalwork was often inscribed for remembrance. The bell itself is simple in design, hammered into shape with a small handle fixed to the top with rivets. Originally forged from iron, it has since been coated in bronze. The shrine is inscribed with three names, including King Domnall Ua Lochlainn's. The rear of the shrine, not intended to be seen, is decorated with crosses while the handle is decorated with, among other work, Celtic designs of birds. The bell is accredited with working a miracle in 1044 and having been coated in bronze to shield it from human eyes, for which it would be too holy. It measures 12. 5 × 10 cm at the base, 12. 8 × 4 cm at the shoulder, 16. 5 cm from base to shoulder, 3. 3 cm from shoulder to top of handle and weighs 1. 7 kg. [116] Saint Patrick's Breastplate Saint Patrick's Breastplate is a lorica, or hymn, which is attributed to Patrick during his Irish ministry in the 5th century. Saint Patrick and Irish identity Logo of Down District Council showing the cross pattée Patrick features in many stories in the Irish oral tradition and there are many customs connected with his feast day. The folklorist Jenny Butler [117] discusses how these traditions have been given new layers of meaning over time while also becoming tied to Irish identity both in Ireland and abroad. The symbolic resonance of the Saint Patrick figure is complex and multifaceted, stretching from that of Christianity's arrival in Ireland to an identity that encompasses everything Irish. In some portrayals, the saint is symbolically synonymous with the Christian religion itself. There is also evidence of a combination of indigenous religious traditions with that of Christianity, which places St Patrick in the wider framework of cultural hybridity. Popular religious expression has this characteristic feature of merging elements of culture. Later in time, the saint becomes associated specifically with Catholic Ireland and synonymously with Irish national identity. Subsequently, Saint Patrick is a patriotic symbol along with the colour green and the shamrock. Saint Patrick's Day celebrations include many traditions that are known to be relatively recent historically, but have endured through time because of their association either with religious or national identity. They have persisted in such a way that they have become stalwart traditions, viewed as the strongest "Irish traditions". Sainthood and modern remembrance Icon of Saint Patrick from Christ the Savior Orthodox Church, Wayne, WV. 17 March, popularly known as Saint Patrick's Day, is believed to be his death date and is the date celebrated as his Feast Day. [118] The day became a feast day in the Catholic Church due to the influence of the Waterford -born Franciscan scholar Luke Wadding, as a member of the commission for the reform of the Breviary in the early part of the seventeenth century. [119] For most of Christianity's first thousand years, canonisations were done on the diocesan or regional level. Relatively soon after the death of people considered very holy, the local Church affirmed that they could be liturgically celebrated as saints. As a result, Patrick has never been formally canonised by a Pope; nevertheless, various Christian churches declare that he is a Saint in Heaven (he is in the List of Saints). He is still widely venerated in Ireland and elsewhere today. [120] Patrick is honoured with a feast day on the liturgical calendar of the Episcopal Church (USA) and with a commemoration on the calendar of Evangelical Lutheran Worship, both on 17 March. Patrick is also venerated in the Orthodox Church, especially among English-speaking Orthodox Christians living in Ireland, the UK and in the US. [121] There are Orthodox icons dedicated to him. [122] Patrick is said to be buried at Down Cathedral in Downpatrick, County Down, alongside Saint Brigid and Saint Columba, although this has never been proven. Saint Patrick Visitor Centre is a modern exhibition complex located in Downpatrick and is a permanent interpretative exhibition centre featuring interactive displays on the life and story of Patrick. It provides the only permanent exhibition centre in the world devoted to Patrick. [123] Places associated with Saint Patrick Saint Patrick's statue at Saul, County Down Slemish, County Antrim and Killala Bay, County Mayo When captured by raiders, there are two theories as to where Patrick was enslaved. One theory is that he herded sheep in the countryside around Slemish. Another theory is that Patrick herded sheep near Killala Bay, at a place called Fochill. Saul, County Down (from Irish: Sabhall Phádraig, meaning "Patrick's barn") [124] It is claimed that Patrick founded his first church in a barn at Saul, which was donated to him by a local chieftain called Dichu. It is also claimed that Patrick died at Saul or was brought there between his death and burial. Nearby, on the crest of Slieve Patrick, is a huge statue of Patrick with bronze panels showing scenes from his life. Hill of Slane, County Meath Muirchu moccu Machtheni, in his highly mythologised seventh-century Life of Patrick, says that Patrick lit a Paschal fire on this hilltop in 433 in defiance of High King Laoire. The story says that the fire could not be doused by anyone but Patrick, and it was here that he explained the holy trinity using the shamrock. Croagh Patrick, County Mayo (from Irish: Cruach Phádraig, meaning "Patrick's stack") [125] It is claimed that Patrick climbed this mountain and fasted on its summit for the forty days of Lent. Croagh Patrick draws thousands of pilgrims who make the trek to the top on the last Sunday in July. Lough Derg, County Donegal (from Irish: Loch Dearg, meaning "red lake") [126] It is claimed that Patrick killed a large serpent on this lake and that its blood turned the water red (hence the name). Each August, pilgrims spend three days fasting and praying there on Station Island. Armagh, County Armagh It is claimed that Patrick founded a church here and proclaimed it to be the most holy church in Ireland. Armagh is today the primary seat of both the Catholic Church in Ireland and the Church of Ireland, and both cathedrals in the town are named after Patrick. Downpatrick, County Down (from Irish: Dún Pádraig, meaning "Patrick's stronghold") [127] It is claimed that Patrick was brought here after his death and buried in the grounds of Down Cathedral. Stone found below St. Patrick's Well. St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, Ireland. Other places named after Saint Patrick include: Patrickswell Lane, a well in Drogheda Town where St. Patrick opened a monastery and baptised the townspeople. Ardpatrick, County Limerick (from Irish: Ard Pádraig, meaning "high place of Patrick") [128] Patrick Water (Old Patrick Water), Elderslie, Renfrewshire. from Scots' Gaelic "AlltPadraig" meaning Patrick's Burn [129] [130] [131] [132] Patrickswell or Toberpatrick, County Limerick (from Irish: Tobar Phádraig, meaning "Patrick's well") [133] St Patrick's Chapel, Heysham St Patrick's Island, County Dublin Old Kilpatrick, near Dumbarton, Scotland from "Cill Phàdraig, " Patrick's Church, a claimant to his birthplace St Patrick's Isle, off the Isle of Man St. Patricks, Newfoundland and Labrador, a community in the Baie Verte district of Newfoundland Llanbadrig (church), Ynys Badrig (island), Porth Padrig (cove), Llyn Padrig (lake), and Rhosbadrig (heath) on the island of Anglesey in Wales Templepatrick, County Antrim (from Irish: Teampall Phádraig, meaning "Patrick's church") [134] St Patrick's Hill, Liverpool, on old maps of the town near to the former location of "St Patrick's Cross" [135] Parroquia San Patricio y Espiritu Santo. Loiza, Puerto Rico. The site was initially mentioned in 1645 as a chapel. The actual building was completed by 1729, is one of the oldest churches in the Americas and today represents the faith of many Irish immigrants that settled in Loiza by the end of the 18th century. Today it is a museum. In literature Robert Southey wrote a ballad called "Saint Patrick's Purgatory", based on popular legends surrounding the saint's name. Patrick is mentioned in a 17th-century ballad about " Saint George and the Dragon " Stephen R. Lawhead wrote the fictional Patrick: Son of Ireland loosely based on the saint's life, including imagined accounts of training as a druid and service in the Roman army before his conversion. [136] The 1999 historical novel Let Me Die in Ireland by Anabaptist author and attorney David Bercot is based on the documented facts of Patrick's life rather than the legend, and suggests implications of his example for Christians today. [137] In film St. Patrick: The Irish Legend is a 2000 television historical drama film about the saint's life. Patrick is portrayed by Patrick Bergin. See also Saint Mun, his nephew St Patrick halfpenny St. Patrick's blue St Patrick's Purgatory St Patrick's Rock List of Catholic saints References ^ "Saints by Cause". Retrieved 25 August 2006. ^ Meekins, Jeannie. Saint Patrick. Learning Island. p. 14. ^ Saint Patrick Retold: The Legend and History of Ireland's Patron Saint. Princeton University Press. 2019. ISBN   9780691190013. ^ See Flechner 2019, pp. 34–35 ^ MacAnnaidh, S. (2013). Irish History. Parragon Books Ltd.   ISBN   978-1-4723-2723-9 [ page needed] ^ Both texts in original Latin, various translations and with images of all extant manuscript testimonies on the "Saint Patrick's Confessio HyperStack website". Royal Irish Academy Dictionary of Medieval Latin from Celtic Sources. Retrieved 14 September 2011. ^ Macthéni, Muirchú maccu; White, Newport John Davis (1920). Patrick, his writings and life. New York: The Macmillan Company. pp. 31–51, 54–60. Retrieved 17 March 2013. ^ "Saints' Lives". Internet Medieval Sources. Fordham University. Retrieved 4 July 2017. [ page needed] ^ a b c Dumville 1993, p. 90 ^ Eoin Mac Neill, St. Patrick, Clonmore and Reynolds, 1964, pp. 87–88 ^ Anthony Harvey, "The Significance of Cothraige ", Ériu Vol. 36, 1985, pp. 1–9 ^ Dumville 1993, p. 16 ^ See Flechner 2011, pp. 125–26 ^ a b Ó Cróinín 1995, p. 26 ^ Stancliffe 2004 ^ a b Byrne 1973, pp. 78–79 ^ a b Hennessy, W. M. (trans. ) Annals of Ulster; otherwise, Annals of Senat, Vol. I. Alexander Thom & Co. (Dublin), 1887. ^ Dumville, pp. 116–; Wood 2001, p. 45 n. 5 ^ a b De Paor 1993, pp. 121–22 ^ Ó Cróinín 1995, p. 27 ^ Byrne 1973, p. 80 ^ Thompson, E. (1999). Who Was Saint Patrick?. The Boydell Press. pp. 166–75. ^ Roy Flechner (2019). Saint Patrick Retold: The Legend and History of Ireland's Patron Saint. ISBN   978-0691190013. ^ a b O'Rahilly 1942 ^ Byrne, pp. 78–79; De Paor 1993, pp. 6–7, 88–89; Duffy 1997, pp. 16–17; Fletcher 1997, pp. 300–06; Yorke 2006, p. 112 ^ There may well have been Christian "Irish" people in Britain at this time; Goidelic-speaking people were found on both sides of the Irish Sea, with Irish being spoken from Cornwall to Argyll. The influence of the Kingdom of Dyfed may have been of particular importance. See Charles-Edwards 2000, pp. 161–72; Dark 2000, pp. 188–90; Ó Cróinín 1995, pp. 17–18; Thomas 1981, pp. 297–300 ^ Duffy 1997, pp. 16–17; Thomas 1981, p. 305 ^ Charles-Edwards 2000, pp. 184–87; Thomas 1981, pp. 297–300; Yorke 2006, pp. 112–14 ^ Charles-Edwards 2000, pp. 233–40 ^ De Paor glosses it as "[probably near] Carlisle " and Thomas argues at length for the areas of Birdoswald, twenty miles (32 km) east of Carlisle on Hadrian's Wall. There is a Roman town known as Bannaventa in Northamptonshire, but this is likely too far from the sea. See De Paor 1993, pp. 88, 96; Thomas 1981, pp. 310–14; Bury 1905, p. 17 ^ The Catholic Encyclopedia states he was born in Kilpatrick, Scotland.   Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "St. Patrick". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. ^ MacNeill, Eoin (1926). "The Native Place of St. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Dublin: Hodges, Figgis: 118–40. Retrieved 17 March 2013. MacNeill argues for an origin in South Wales, noting that the western coasts of southern Scotland and northern England held little to interest a raider seeking quick access to booty and numerous slaves, while the southern coast of Wales offered both. In addition, the region was home to Uí Liatháin and possibly also y Déisi settlers during this time, so Irish raiders would have had the contacts to tell them precisely where to go to quickly obtain booty and capture slaves. MacNeill also suggests a possible home town based on naming similarities, but allows that the transcription errors in manuscripts make this little more than an educated guess. ^ "An Inquiry as to the Birthplace of St. By J. H. Turner, M. p. 268. Read before the Society, 8 January 1872. Archaeologia Scotica pp. 261–84. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Volume 5, 1890". Retrieved 17 March 2019. ^ a b c d "Confession of St Patrick". Christian Classics Ethereal Library. 7 April 2013. ^ "Confession of St. Patrick, Part 17". Retrieved 11 March 2010. ^ "Confession #19". St Patrick's Confessio. Royal Irish Academy. ^ De Paor 1993, pp. 99–100; Charles-Edwards 2000, p. 229; Confessio; 17–19 ^ De Paor 1993, p. 100 De Paor glosses Foclut as "west of Killala Bay, in County Mayo ", but it appears that the location of Fochoill (Foclut or Voclut) is still a matter of debate. See Charles-Edwards 2000, p. 215; Confessio; 17 ^ Hood 1978, p. 4 ^ Thomas, Charles (1981). Christianity in Roman Britain to AD 500. University of California Press. p. 51. ISBN   978-0520043923. ^ Bridgwater, William; Kurtz, Seymour, eds. (1963). "Saint Patrick". The Columbia Encyclopedia (3rd ed. ). New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 1611–12. ^ a b  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain:  Herbermann, Charles, ed. New York: Robert Appleton. ^ Bury 1905, p. 81 ^ Bury 1905, p. 31 ^ Thomas 1981, pp. 337–41; De Paor 1993, pp. 104–07; Charles-Edwards 2000, pp. 217–19 ^ See Flechner 2019, p. 55 ^ "Confession of St. Patrick, Part 50". Retrieved 11 March 2010. ^ Charles-Edwards 2000, pp. 219–25; Thomas 1981, pp. 337–41; De Paor 1993, pp. 104–07 ^ Confessio, section 41 ^ De Paor 1993, p. 107; Charles-Edwards 2000, pp. 221–22 ^ Confessio; 21 ^ This is presumed to refer to Patrick's tonsure. ^ After Ó Cróinín 1995, p. 32; De Paor 1993, p. 180 See also Ó Cróinín 1995, pp. 30–33 ^ "Letter To Coroticus, by Saint St. Gilder Lehrman Center at Yale University. Archived from the original on 22 March 2010. Retrieved 11 March 2010. ^ Todd, James (1864). "The Epistle on Coroticus". Patrick: Apostle of Ireland: a Memoir of His Life and Mission, with an Introductory Dissertation on Some Early Usages of the Church in Ireland, and Its Historical Position from the Establishment of the English Colony to the Present Day. Dublin: Hodges, Smith, & Co. pp. 383–85. ^ De Paor 1993, pp. 109–13; Charles-Edwards 2000, pp. 226–30 ^ Thompson 1980 ^ Thomas 1981, pp. 339–43 ^ De Paor 1993, pp. 141–43; Charles-Edwards 2000, pp. 182–83 Bede, writing a century later, refers to Palladius only. ^ De Paor 1993, pp. 151–1l53; Charles-Edwards 2000, pp. 182–83 ^ Both texts in original Latin and English translations and images of the Book of Armagh manuscript copy on the "Saint Patrick's Confessio HyperStack website". Retrieved 14 September 2011. ^ Aideen O'Leary, "An Irish Apocryphal Apostle: Muirchú's Portrayal of Saint Patrick" The Harvard Theological Review 89. 3 (July 1996), pp. 287–301, traces Muichù's sources and his explicit parallels of Patrick with Moses, the bringer of rechte Litre, the "letter of the Law"; the adversary, King Lóegaire, takes the role of Pharaoh. ^ Annals of Ulster, AU 657. 1: "Obitus... Ultán moccu Conchobair. " ^ De Paor 1993, p. 154 ^ De Paor 1993, pp. 175–77 ^ White 1920, p. 110 ^ Their works are found in De Paor, pp. 154–74 & 175–97 respectively. ^ Charles-Edwards 2000, pp. 224–26 ^ Ó Cróinín 1995, pp. 30–33. Ramsay MacMullen 's Christianizing the Roman Empire (Yale University Press, 1984) examines the better-recorded mechanics of conversion in the Empire, and forms the basis of Ó Cróinín's conclusions. ^ Charles-Edwards 2000, pp. 416–17 & 429–40 ^ The relevant annals are reprinted in De Paor 1993, pp. 117–30 ^ De Paor's conclusions at p. 135, the document itself is given at pp. 135–38. ^ St. Patrick's Day Facts: Snakes, a Slave, and a Saint National Geographic Retrieved 10 February 2011 ^ Threlkeld, Caleb Synopsis stirpium Hibernicarum alphabetice dispositarum, sive, Commentatio de plantis indigenis præsertim Dublinensibus instituta. With An appendix of observations made upon plants, by Dr. Molyneux, 1726, cited in "shamrock, n. ", The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed. 1989 ^ a b Monaghan, Patricia (2009). The Encyclopedia of Celtic Mythology and Folklore. Infobase Publishing. ISBN   978-1438110370. ^ Hegarty, Neil (2012). Story of Ireland. Ebury Publishing. ISBN   978-1448140398. ^ Santino, Jack (1995). All Around the Year: Holidays and Celebrations in American Life. University of Illinois Press. p. 80. ISBN   978-0252065163. ^ Homan, Roger (2006). The Art of the Sublime: Principles of Christian Art and Architecture. Ashgate Publishing. p. 37. ^ Roy Flechner (2019). p. 213. ISBN   978-0-691-19001-3. ^ Saint Patrick Retold: The Legend and History of Ireland's Patron Saint. p. 211. ISBN   978-0691190013. ^ Robinson, William Erigena. New Haven Hibernian Provident Society. Patrick and the Irish: an oration, before the Hibernian Provident Society, of New Haven, 17 March 1842. 8. ^ a b c Owen, James (13 March 2008). "Snakeless in Ireland: Blame Ice Age, Not St. National Geographic News. Retrieved 17 March 2011. ^ Hassig, Debra, The mark of the beast: the medieval bestiary in art, Life, and literature (Taylor & Francis, 1999) [ page needed] ^ von Fleischer, Aylmer (2015). Megalith: The Black Builders of Stonehenge. Aylmer von Fleischer. p. 75. Metaphorically the sankes [ sic] were the Black Druids. Patrick's Christian religion superseded the serpent-worship of the Back Druids, hence the snakes were drive out of Ireland. ^ Nagy, Joseph Falaky (2006). "Acallam na Senórach". In Koch, John T. (ed. Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. 1. Oxford: ABC-CLIO. p. 8. ISBN   978-1-85109-440-0. ^ "Saint Patrick, Bishop". SacredSpace. ^ "Saint Patrick Biography". The Biography Channel Website. ^ Cusack, Margaret. Patrick's Captivity". ^ "Confession of St. Christian Classics Ethereal Library. ^ "The Religious Affiliation of St. Patrick who brought Christianity to Ireland". ^ Annals of the Four Masters, ed. & tr. John O'Donovan (1856). Annála Rioghachta Éireann. Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland by the Four Masters... with a Translation and Copious Notes. 7 vols (2nd ed. Dublin: Royal Irish Academy. s. a. 3 CELT editions. Full scans at Internet Archive: Vol. 1; Vol. 2; Vol. 3; Vol. 4; Vol. 5; Vol. 6; Indices. ^ Was St Patrick a slave-trading Roman official who fled to Ireland? 17 March 2012 Dr Roy Flechner Cambridge Research News. Retrieved 9 March 2016. This article was published in Tome: Studies in Medieval History and Law in Honour of Thomas Charles-Edwards, ed. Edmonds and P. Russell (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2011). ^ See Flechner 2011, pp. 130–33 ^ See Flechner 2011, pp. 127–28 ^ " Heraldic Dictionary – Crowns, Helmets, Chaplets & Chapeaux". 24 February 2003. Retrieved 16 July 2018. ^ "An Archbishop's Mitre | ClipArt ETC".. Retrieved 16 July 2018. ^ Patrician Brothers Crest ^ "Happy Saint Patrick's Day! ".. Retrieved 16 July 2018. ^ "St. Patrick".. Retrieved 16 July 2018. ^ Happy Saint Patrick's Day, 2011 Archived 12 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine ^ Our Stained Glass Windows – St. Patrick Archived 12 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine ^ "Optional Memorial of St. Patrick, bishop and confessor (Solemnity Aus, Ire, Feast New Zeal, Scot, Wales) – March 17, 2012 – Liturgical Calendar – Catholic Culture".. Retrieved 16 July 2018. ^ "Archdiocese of Armagh". 31 May 2018. Retrieved 16 July 2018. ^ "The Church of Ireland Diocese of Armagh | For information about the Church of Ireland Diocese of Armagh".. Retrieved 16 July 2018. ^ Hayes-McCoy, p. 40 ^ Morley, Vincent (27 September 2007). Patrick's Cross". Retrieved 29 June 2009. Colgan, Nathaniel (1896). "The Shamrock in Literature: a critical chronology". Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 26: 349. Swift, Jonathan (2008). "Letter 61". Journal to Stella. eBooks@Adelaide. University of Adelaide. Retrieved 17 March 2013. ^ a b Croker, Thomas Crofton (1839). The Popular Songs of Ireland. Collected and Edited, with Introductions and Notes. Henry Colburn. pp. 7–9. Retrieved 10 March 2019. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland Vol. 18, plate facing p. 249 'Kilmalkedar'; fig. 4 is "St. Patrick's Cross" [p. 251] of children in S. of Irl. c. 1850s ^ Colgan, p. 351, fn. 2 "Irishman's Diary: The Patrick's Cross". The Irish Times. 13 March 1935. p. 4 – via ProQuest. ^ "Clog Phádraig agus a Chumhdach [The Bell of St. Patrick and its Shrine]". Dublin: NMI. 2015. Retrieved 26 November 2015. ^   Haweis, Hugh Reginald (1878), "Bell", in Baynes, T. S. ), Encyclopædia Britannica, 3 (9th ed. ), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 536 ^ The bell was formerly known as "The Bell of St Patrick's Will" ( Clog an eadhachta Phatraic), [114] in reference to a medieval forgery which purported to have been the saint's last will and testament. ^ Treasures of early Irish art, 1500 B. C. to 1500 A. D. : from the collections of the National Museum of Ireland, Royal Irish Academy, Trinity College, Dublin, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art (fully available online as PDF), bell No. 45, shrine # 61; The Bellshrine of St. Patrick, Clan McLaughlan website ^ Butler, Jenny (2012), "St. Patrick, Folklore and Irish National Identity" 84–101 in Heimo, Anne; Hovi, Tuomas; Vasenkari, Maria, ed. Saint Urho – Pyhä Urho – From Fakelore To Folklore, University of Turku: Finland. ISBN   978-951-29-4897-0 ^ "Ὁ Ἅγιος Πατρίκιος Ἀπόστολος τῆς Ἰρλανδίας" [The Agios Patricios Apostle of Ireland]. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ [ Great Synaxaristes] (in Greek). Ημ. Εορτής: 17 Μαρτίου [Feast Date: March 17] ^   Gregory Cleary (1913). "Luke Wadding". In Herbermann, Charles (ed. New York: Robert Appleton Company. ^ "Ask a Franciscan: Saints Come From All Nations – March 2001 Issue of St. Anthony Messenger Magazine Online". Retrieved 25 August 2006. ^ "St Patrick the Bishop of Armagh and Enlightener of Ireland".. Retrieved 11 November 2007. ^ "Icon of St. Retrieved 17 March 2008. ^ About Us Archived 4 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine The Saint Patrick Centre Retrieved 20 February 2011 ^ "Placenames NI – The Northern Ireland Place-Name Project". Archived from the original on 17 March 2012. Retrieved 19 October 2012. ^ "Cruach Phádraig, Bunachar Logainmneacha na hÉireann – Placenames Database of Ireland".. Government of Ireland. 13 December 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2012. ^ "Loch Dearg, Bunachar Logainmneacha na hÉireann – Placenames Database of Ireland".. Retrieved 19 October 2012. ^ "Dún Padraig, Bunachar Logainmneacha na hÉireann – Placenames Database of Ireland".. Retrieved 19 October 2012. [ failed verification] ^ "Ard Padraig, Bunachar Logainmneacha na hÉireann – Placenames Database of Ireland".. [ failed verification] ^ "Old Patrick Water, linear feature". Saints in Scottish Place-names. Commemorations of Saints in Scottish Place-names. ^ Theatrum Orbis Terrarum Sive Atlas Novus Volume V, Joan Blaeu, Amsterdam 1654 ^ Registrum Monasterii de Passelet, Paisley Abbey Register 1208, 1211, 1226, 1396 ^ A History of Elderslie by Derek P. Parker (1983), pp. vi, 3–4, 5 ^ "Tobar Phádraig, Bunachar Logainmneacha na hÉireann – Placenames Database of Ireland".. Retrieved 19 October 2012. ^ "Teampall Phádraig, Bunachar Logainmneacha na hÉireann – Placenames Database of Ireland".. Retrieved 19 October 2012. ^ "Introduction". Saint Patrick's Cross Liverpool. Retrieved 19 October 2012. ^ "Patrick: Son of Ireland | Books". 23 August 2007. Archived from the original on 28 May 2009. Retrieved 4 October 2009. ^ Bercot, David W. Let Me Die in Ireland: The True Story of Patrick. Tyler, TX: Scroll Pub. ISBN   978-0924722080. OCLC   43552984. Works cited Bury, John Bagnell (1905). Life of St. Patrick and His Place in History. London: Macmillan. Byrne, Francis J. (1973). Irish Kings and High-Kings. London: Batsford. ISBN   978-0-7134-5882-4. Charles-Edwards, T. (2000). Early Christian Ireland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-0-521-36395-2. Dark, Ken (2000). Britain and the End of the Roman Empire. Stroud: Tempus. ISBN   978-0-7524-2532-0. De Paor, Liam (1993). Saint Patrick's World: The Christian Culture of Ireland's Apostolic Age. Dublin: Four Courts Press. ISBN   978-1-85182-144-0. Duffy, Seán, ed. (1997). Atlas of Irish History. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan. ISBN   978-0-7171-3093-1. Dumville, David M. (1993). Saint Patrick, AD 493–1993. Woodbridge: The Boydell Press. ISBN   978-0-85115-332-2. Flechner, Roy (2011). "Patrick's Reasons for Leaving Britain". In Russell, Edmonds (ed. Tome: Studies in Medieval Celtic History and Law in Honour of Thomas Charles-Edwards. Woodbridge: Boydell Press. ISBN   978-1-84383-661-2. Flechner, Roy (2019). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN   978-0691184647. Fletcher, Richard (1997). The Conversion of Europe: From Paganism to Christianity 371–1386 AD. London: Harper Collins. ISBN   978-0-00-686302-1. Hood, A. (1978). Patrick: his Writings, and Muirchú's Life. London and Chichester: Phillimore. ISBN   978-0-85033-299-5. Ó Cróinín, Dáibhí (1995). Early Medieval Ireland: 400–1200. London: Longman. ISBN   978-0-582-01565-4. O'Rahilly, T. (1942). The Two Patricks: A Lecture on the History of Christianity in Fifth-Century Ireland. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. Stancliffe, Claire (2004). "Patrick ( fl. 5th cent. )". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed. Oxford University Press. doi: 10. 1093/ref:odnb/21562. Retrieved 17 February 2007. (Subscription or UK public library membership required. ) Thomas, Charles (1981). ISBN   978-0-7134-1442-4. Thompson, E. (1980). Caird, G. ; Chadwick, Henry (eds. Patrick and Coroticus". The Journal of Theological Studies. 31: 12–27. 1093/jts/XXXI. 12. White, Newport J. (1920). Patrick, His Writings and Life. New York: Macmillan. Retrieved 17 March 2013. Wood, Ian (2001). The Missionary Life: Saints and the Evangelisation of Europe 400–1050. ISBN   978-0-582-31213-5. Yorke, Barbara (2006). The Conversion of Britain: Religion, Politics and Society in Britain c. 600–800. ISBN   978-0-582-77292-2. Further reading Brown, Peter (2003). The Rise of Western Christendom: Triumph and Diversity, A. 200–1000 (2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN   978-0-631-22138-8. Cahill, Thomas (1995). How the Irish Saved Civilization. New York: Doubleday. ISBN   978-0-385-41849-2. Dumville, David (1994). "The Death Date of St. In Howlett, David (ed. The Book of Letters of Saint Patrick the Bishop. ISBN   978-1-85182-136-5. Healy, John (1892). "The Arrival of Saint Patrick". The Ancient Irish Church (1 ed. London: Religious Tract Society. pp. 17–25. Hughes, Kathleen (1972). Early Christian Ireland: Introduction to the Sources. London: Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN   978-0-340-16145-6. Iannello, Fausto (2008). "Note storiche sull ' Epistola ad Milites Corotici di San Patrizio". Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti, Classe di Lettere, Filosofia e Belle Arti. 84: 275–285. Iannello, Fausto (2012), "Il modello paolino nell’ Epistola ad milites Corotici di san Patrizio, Bollettino di Studi Latini 42/1: 43–63 Iannello, Fausto (2013), "Notes and Considerations on the Importance of St. Patrick's Epistola ad Milites Corotici as a Source on the Origins of Celtic Christianity and Sub-Roman Britain". Imago Temporis. Medium Aevum 7 2013: 97–137 Moran, Patrick Francis Cardinal (1913). New York: Robert Appleton Company. McCaffrey, Carmel (2003). In Search of Ancient Ireland. Chicago: Ivan R Dee. ISBN   978-1-56663-525-7. MacQuarrie, Alan (1997). The Saints of Scotland: Essays in Scottish Church History AD 450–1093. Edinburgh: John Donald. ISBN   978-0-85976-446-9. O'Loughlin, Thomas (1999). Saint Patrick: The Man and his Works. London: S. P. K. O'Loughlin, Thomas (2000). Celtic Theology. London: Continuum. O'Loughlin, Thomas (2005). Discovering Saint Patrick. New York: Orbis. O'Loughlin, Thomas (2005). "The Capitula of Muirchu's Vita Patricii: do they point to an underlying structure in the text? ". Analecta Bollandiana. 123: 79–89. 1484/. O'Loughlin, Thomas (2007). Nagy, J. The Myth of Insularity and Nationality in Ireland. pp. 132–140. External links Works by Saint Patrick at Project Gutenberg The Most Ancient Lives of Saint Patrick, edited by James O'Leary, 1880, from Project Gutenberg. Works by or about Saint Patrick at Internet Archive Works by Saint Patrick at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks) St. Patrick's Confession and Epistola online from the Royal Irish Academy BBC: Religion & Ethics, Christianity: Saint Patrick (Incl. audio) Opera Omnia by Migne Patristica Latina with analytical indexes CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts at University College Cork includes Patrick's Confessio and Epistola, as well as various lives of Saint Patrick. Saint Patrick's Confessio Hypertext Stack as published by the Royal Irish Academy Dictionary of Medieval Latin from Celtic Sources (DMLCS) freely providing digital scholarly editions of Saint Patrick's writings as well as translations and digital facsimiles of all extant manuscript copies. Saint Patrick Retold by Roy Flechner; a biography from Princeton University Press. History: Saint Patrick – Historical Man and Popular Myth by Elva Johnston (University College Dublin) Saint Patrick Timeline | Church History Timelines.

К содержанию Раздел 3 - Языковой материал (задания по Грамматике и Лексике) Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Преобразуйте слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами 18-26, так, чтобы они грамматически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию 18-26. 18 TIME is a weekly magazine published in New York. In 2010 the magazine __________________ Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg as Person of the Year. CHOOSE Ответ: chose 19 Everything began in February 2004, when Zuckerberg was still a student at Harvard. He made an online platform to connect college students. It helped __________________ to learn and socialise. THEY Ответ: them 20 Soon, other __________________ joined Facebook and then it became popular with a much wider audience. UNIVERSITY Ответ: universities 21 Today Facebook __________________ by over a billion people. They play games, find friends, learn the news, and share photos there. USE Ответ: is used 22 Not everyone, however, __________________ Facebook is a good thing. THINK Ответ: thinks 23 My __________________ friend, Nicky, believes that I spend too much time online, on social networks. GOOD Ответ: best 24 “I wish you__________________ more time with your real friends, ” he keeps saying. SPEND Ответ: spent 25 Last Saturday when Nicky came to my place to discuss a school problem, I __________________ online. He waited for a while but then left without saying a word. CHAT Ответ: was chatting 26 And he __________________ since then. I feel I’ll probably have to change my habits if I want to have real friends, not only virtual ones. NOT/CALL Ответ: has not called / hasn't called 7DFD7F Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Преобразуйте слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами 27-32, так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию 27-32. 27 St Patrick is the patron saint of Ireland. St Patrick is __________________ for his heroic deeds. FAME Ответ: famous 28 People gladly believe in __________________ tales about St Patrick and don’t look for any historical evidence to prove them. AMAZE Ответ: amzing 29 And the facts often__________________ with the tales. For example, an old legend says that St Patrick drove all the snakes out of Ireland. AGREE Ответ: disagree 30 This myth is actually untrue. At the time snakes appeared on the planet, Ireland was __________________ covered by water. COMPLETE Ответ: completely 31 Now it is an island which means it is surrounded by water. The water makes it__________________ for snakes to get to the island. POSSIBLE Ответ: impossible 32 The same__________________ is true for New Zealand, Greenland, and many other islands. SITUATE Ответ: situation 20C8EA.

4:00 LOL! How in the name of God could you forget to put a staircase to the choir loft? Yes, why on earth was that sensible and practical idea slipped out of the rational minds of all the carpenters, architect and maybe even the engineer's mind involved in building the choir loft? And they continued to build it! Where in heaven's name will all the choristers go up to and come down from the loft? What a dismal annoying but a laughable fail. A well done overview, but, as in many lower budget films, it's difficult to capture the full story. Worth watching to get an understanding of the general history of this amazing man.

St Patrick is the patron saint of Ireland, credited with spreading Christianity across the Emerald Isle in the 5th century and establishing it as the dominant religion. What we know about Patrick comes largely from his written work Confessio. Patrick was born in Roman-occupied Britain around the turn of the 5th century near to a place called Bannavem Taburniae, where his father, a deacon called Calpurnius, and grandfather, a priest called Potitus, lived. The exact location of Bannavem Taburniae is not known, though it's believed by some historians to be near Port Talbot in south Wales. Along with thousands of others, Patrick was kidnapped aged 16 by pirates from Ireland and taken there as a slave, where he herded sheep. While a slave, he became passionately religious. People in fancy dress costumes walk past during the annual St. Patrick's Day parade in Moscow on March 18, 2017. VASILY MAXIMOV/AFP/Getty Images "It was there that the Lord opened up my awareness of my lack of faith, " St Patrick wrote in Confessio. "Even though it came about late, I recognised my failings. So I turned with all my heart to the Lord my God, and he looked down on my lowliness and had mercy on my youthful ignorance. " After six years of captivity, he heard a voice in a dream telling him that he would return to Britain and that his ship was ready, 200 miles away, and he ran away. St Patrick made it back to Britain, and was eventually captured again, though freed shortly afterwards. He reunited with his parents, who begged him to stay, but he had a vision from someone called Victoricus, who carried letters from Ireland and gave him one. It begged him to return. It's thought Patrick travelled to France to study under St Germain, the bishop of Auxerre, and was eventually ordained before he set off as a fully-fledged Catholic missionary. St Patrick travelled around Ireland preaching the Christian faith, trying to convert all he met, baptising people along the way and establishing new churches, eventually becoming a bishop himself. "How has this happened in Ireland? " he wrote in Confessio. "Never before did they know of God except to serve idols and unclean things. But now, they have become the people of the Lord, and are called children of God. The sons and daughters of the leaders of the Irish are seen to be monks and virgins of Christ! " Patrick suffered much during these decades of preaching around Ireland. "At times I gave gifts to kings, over and above what I paid to their sons who travelled with me, " he wrote. "Despite this, they took me and my companions prisoner, and very much wanted to kill me, but the time had not yet come. They stole everything they found in our possession, and they bound me in iron. " Spectators take a selfie as they attend the St Patrick's Day parade in Dublin on March 17, 2015. This year's festivities include parades and 10K runs. PAUL FAITH/AFP/Getty Images The exact date of Patrick's death is unknown and the two potential times it took place are around 30 years apart, the first being around 460, the second around 490. It's thought he died on March 17—which is why that's his feast day, St Patrick's Day, and is celebrated every year. Confessio and another contemporary text written by Patrick, his letter to Coroticus, are the only historical evidence of the real Patrick. However, a number of popular myths and legends were created in the hundreds of years after his death. Among those are stories is one of him using the shamrock— Ireland's national symbol —in his preaching to convert pagans. Another claims he banished all the snakes from Ireland by chasing them into the sea, which is why there aren't any left slithering around. The 7th century monk and Irish historian Muirchú, the biographer of St Patrick, is to blame for much of the cultural mythology surrounding him. He wanted to create a unifying symbol of Irishness and, to him, Patrick was the perfect national figurehead.

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Production Notes from IMDbPro Status: Post-production | See complete list of in-production titles  » Updated: 9 December 2019 More Info: See more production information about this title on IMDbPro. Edit Storyline In the 5th century, the Roman Empire was collapsing and barbarians threatened civilization. In Britain, a teenager named Patrick was living a comfortable life as the son of a government official. Despite being part of the Roman Catholic Church, his faith didn't mean anything to him until he was kidnapped by pirates at the age of 16 and enslaved at the edge of the known world - Ireland. For 6 years Patrick was forced to work as a shepherd and was driven to the brink of starvation. It was there that he turned to his Christian faith and through divine intervention managed to escape. He was reunited with his family in Britain only to have a prophetic dream calling him to take Christianity back to the land of his captivity. Against the wishes of his family and the Church, Patrick returned as a missionary bishop to Ireland and converted thousands to Christianity. He opposed slavers, Irish kings, and possibly druids but nothing compared to the hostility he faced from his fellow Christians.... Written by Anonymous Plot Summary Add Synopsis Details Release Date: 17 March 2020 (USA) See more  » Also Known As: I Am Patrick Company Credits Technical Specs See full technical specs  ».

Free Download I Am patrick fiori. Ghost, Dirty Dancing & Too wong foo are definitely my favorite movies he was in. He was such a handsome man, my mother was obsessed with him! RIP Patrick. Free download i am patrick songs. NR I AM PATRICK peels back centuries of legend and myth to tell the true story of Saint Patrick. Through historical re-enactments, expert interviews and Patrick's own writings, experience the journey from man to saint. CAST: John Rhys-Davies, Moe Dunford, Toni O'Rourke DIRECTOR: Jarrod Anderson RUN TIME: 125 min About Film Ratings.

Free download i am patrick brown. 17 March 2015 Last updated at 06:56 The traditional dyeing of the Chicago River marked Saint Patrick's Day festivities in Illinois As people across the world prepare to celebrate the life of one of the world's most famous Irishmen, was St Patrick actually Welsh? For many, St Patrick's Day commemorations will centre around pub crawls and street parades, but in one small village in west Wales a more sedate celebration will be taking place. Patrick, or Padrig in Welsh, was born around 387 AD and was known as Maewyn (Welsh for devoted friend) Succat (a Pagan term for warlike). He is believed to have come from Bannavem Taburniae, which could be Banwen in Neath Port Talbot, where every year a service is held in his honour. The annual event sees a small collection of residents, historians and school children congregate beside a plaque left in memory of the patron saint of Ireland, before they retire to a community centre for a cup of tea. St Patrick is remembered across the world for his missionary work in Ireland Although it is much lower key than many other St Patrick's Day celebrations, residents believe it is important to keep the link with Patrick - who would be their most famous son - alive. One man who has a personal interest in promoting the connection is author and historian George Brinley Evans. "My grandfather had a small holding by the side of the road which he farmed. When I was about eight years old I was told St Patrick was born on that land, " he said. "It has been said for years he came from Banwen, and in 2004 we had a beautiful stone by the side of the road to mark this. People come from Ireland to visit it. "Academics have looked at the idea that St Patrick was born in Wales. Although you can't really say he was a Welshman because it was Roman Britain, " he added. St Patrick's upbringing Born in Bannavem Taberniae His father Calpurnius, was a 'decurion', a kind of town councillor, and a church deacon. His grandfather Potitus was a priest He lived in a villa with servants and helped in the fields until the age of seven when he was sent to school He was abducted and forced into slavery for six years as a teenager While there is no firm evidence to prove St Patrick was Welsh - with Scotland also mooted as his birthplace - some argue that several things point to it. Historian and Onllwyn community councillor Tom Marston said: "No tessellated Roman villa or plaques saying he was born here have been found. "I think the strongest evidence is the persistence of the notion among local people that it was so. Next is the written confession of the man himself where he mentions the name and description of his birthplace itself. "But for me it is a line of wordplay in The Confession of St Patrick, I quote: 'I was picked a stone out of the bog', the word stone being a play on his name Patrick and bog being a play on the name of birthplace Banwen. " A stone marking ceremony at the saint's alleged birthplace during a St Patrick's Day parade in Banwen in 2008 As a teenager St Patrick was said to have been captured by pirates along with his sister and sold into slavery. He worked as a shepherd in Ireland until he managed to escape and board a ship home. He is said to have been ordained as a priest before returning to Ireland where he played a significant role in converting the country to Christianity, becoming its first bishop. The training he received to do this missionary work is, again, said by some to have taken place in Wales at the Church of Llantwit Major. A young Irish dancer marches in the London St Patrick's Day parade Founded in 500 AD by the Welsh monk Illtud, the Church of Llantwit Major, or Llanilltud Fawr, is believed to be Britain's earliest centre of learning. St Illtud established a monastic school of over 1, 000 pupils, which is said to have included Wales' patron saint St David as well as St Patrick. The Rector of Llantwit Major, Huw Butler said: "It is traditionally said that Patrick studied in Llantwit, but I think it is highly unlikely that he did. "It was the first seat of learning when it was established, and many ecclesiastical students were travellers who moved around extensively, so it is hard to know who actually did study here. "There is a stained glass window which features St Patrick, but St Illtud established the school here in 500 and Patrick died before this. " A reveller at the Mayor of London's St Patrick's Day Parade and Festival in London Despite the lack of firm evidence of his Welsh connections, St Patrick will be remembered this year, as he is every year, by locals in the village which has claimed him as its own. Historian George Brinley Evan added: "I hope every year more and more people learn about the fact St Patrick was born in Wales, and more and more people come and visit. It would create jobs for people and St Patrick would be helping the village. " Tuesday's devastating attacks in Brussels show IS's European network is still at large, despite a year of intensive efforts by security forces to close it down. Scientists are debating whether it's possible to harness the power of gravity for interstellar space travel. The four-year-old boy who has become the centre of a controversy between India and Pakistan - and between his father and mother. Why, almost 60 years after he first appeared in the Daily Mirror, is a layabout lout from north-east England still so loved around the world?

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Free download i am patrick funny. Ireland celebrates Saint Patrick every March 17. But how many of us can really say that we know who he is – or who he was – and how relevant he is in today's secular and, for the most part, pagan society? Saint Patrick is not only the Patron Saint of Ireland, but he is also the Patron Saint of Australia, Nigeria, and Montserrat, which gives him a universal recognition in the Church and in the world. He is also "Apostle" by God's design to the Irish worldwide in the same genre as Saint Paul was "Apostle to the Gentiles. " Saint Patrick becomes the Patron Saint on March 17 in almost every country of the world, as people celebrate their "Irish- ness " or links with Ireland through family and friends. Saint Patrick is probably the best-known saint around the world, after Saint Therese of Lisieux. Not only are many people named after him, with some 7 million bearing his name, but many establishments, institutions, and churches are called after him.  Saint Patrick's Cathedral in New York is the most famous of all. 5 St. Patrick's Cathedral in New York. Photo: iStock St. Patrick's kidnapping and imprisonment in Ireland By all historical accounts, Patrick was captured by an Irish raiding party somewhere along the west coast of what is known today as Great Britain. It was more than likely Scotland because of its proximity to Ireland, although many would say Wales. We know that there were boats leaving from  Strangford Lough in Larne at that time, around the year 426 AD. (One can see Scotland from Larne on a clear day; it's about 10 miles away). Raiding parties, with warriors known as the " Picts, "  would land somewhere on the coast and, if the place was inhabited, would usually do a "smash and grab job" of looting – young people, animals, clothes, weapons, etc. – and if they were opposed by anyone, they would kill them in order to get what they wanted. They were able to run inland for about three miles non-stop while leaving a handful of men to guard their vessels. On one such raid, Patrick was snatched and brought to Ireland as a slave. His job was to mind the sheep at night in case wolves, wild dogs, foxes or even wild bears would take them or their lambs. He did this on the slopes of the Slemish Mountains in County Antrim. We know from our history that Patrick's father was a deacon and, therefore, a good Catholic. He was one who taught the faith in his own community, and no doubt one who prayed unceasingly for Patrick in a special way after his son's kidnapping, asking the Lord for his safe return. (We know some of the sources that give testimony to these facts from Patrick's "Confessions, " the "Epistle against Coroticus ", and a number of "Ancient Lives, " including the Book of Armagh II, held in Trinity College Dublin). Read more:   St. Patrick's 5th-century Irish diet revealed St. Patrick's Statue in Aghagower, Co. Mayo. Photo: Andreas F. Borchert, Wikimedia Commons. How St. Patrick returned home and became a priest Although Patrick was only 16 years old when taken into slavery, he was able to escape six years later and return home. He recounts a "dream" (vision) he had, in which an angel of the Lord came in the night, and told him of a ship that was leaving Ireland, and how he might be able to take it by traveling south, near Dublin. By this time, Patrick, who was often cold and hungry, had spent six years in virtual isolation away from people. He was lonely and had turned to prayer and, like his father, had prayed non-stop asking God to deliver him. His prayers were finally heard and God had designs on him. In fact, it would be fair to say, that Patrick had become somewhat of a mystic by this stage, so intense was his prayer life and his constant communication with God. He arrived home to the delight of his parents and was reunited with his family and friends. He later began to realize that he had a vocation to the priesthood or some ministry of prayer in the Church. At this time the Church was already established somewhat in Ireland. There was already an Archbishop of Armagh by the name of Pallidus. Ireland was not ecclesiastically independent at the time but came under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of Arles in France, which is connected to the great Mediterranean Sea by the Rhone River and from there by a direct link to Rome. Patrick often thought about the Irish and prayed for their conversion to the faith. During his time in Ireland, even though he was a slave, he had developed a profound relationship with God and a great ability to pray. Later, as he said himself in his "Confessions, " he was tormented by the "Voice of the Irish, " whom he had heard calling in the night: "Come back to us Patrick. " Read more:   Being Irish on St. Patrick’s Day - why we love it St. Patrick's great mission to Ireland and the arrival of civilization Once Patrick was ordained as a priest and had learned Latin and French, he asked to be sent as a missionary to Ireland, or, as it was known then, Hiberniae, which means the "Land of Winter. " Patrick had a great missionary zeal and soon became Ireland's second Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of all Ireland. He set two goals for himself: first, to evangelize the pagan Irish, and second, to set up the ecclesiastical structures and dioceses with a view to achieving independence from Arles, which was supporting the missionary activity in Ireland up until that time. To do this without modern communications, roads, rail, telecommunications, etc. was very difficult, but Patrick was not deterred by hardship. After all, he was on fire with the love of God in his heart. He knew what his mission would be, and how difficult it was, but he trusted always in the power of God to deliver him, and so he went about evangelizing. He did this by setting up many quasi-monastic structures in towns and villages when he passed through them. He preached daily about the Kingdom of Heaven and baptized those who accepted the Gospel. Those who excelled in their faith, he ordained to the diaconate, leaving them in charge of the prayer and the various liturgical ceremonies, while in many cases he ordained many devout men to the priesthood. Later he was able to select from them good and brave men whom he consecrated as bishops with the approval of the Pope.  He was also successful in setting up dioceses in larger towns as he journeyed throughout the island of Ireland. Saint Patrick had laid the foundations not only for the Catholic Church in Ireland but for all of Western Europe and as such deserves the title, yet to be bestowed, of Co-Patron of Europe along with Saint Benedict, Saint Teresa Benedicta of the Holy Cross (Edith Stein), and Saint Bridget of Sweden. St. Patrick had laid the foundations for the Catholic Church in Ireland. Image: Library of Congress The Catholic Church in Ireland evangelized and educated its own people first and provided the first organized educational infrastructure for a society that previously had none. The monasteries were built and there were plenty of vocations to the priesthood and the religious life. The Irish monks became teachers and inventors. They were, in addition to leading the monastic life of prayer, also great builders and craftsmen. Given that there were so many vocations, they began to look at the possibilities of becoming missionaries not only to Europe but to the Americas. Many monk missionaries left Ireland well prepared, some bound for Scotland, where they set up a monastery on Iona.  Still others went to France, establishing the famous monastery of Locmine in Brittany, which still exists. Others went to Spain and  Saint Brendan the Abbot even went to North America (474-577AD). Saint Patrick realized that the word Christianization was synonymous with civilization and, therefore, as Europeans were being evangelized, they were at the same time being civilized. Europeans eventually became educated and were able to build the big monasteries and cathedrals, many of which still exist. This is due initially to the untiring efforts of Saint Patrick and those great missionaries who are, for the most part, forgotten by the Irish of today. Saint Patrick himself is really a gift of God to the Irish people for whom the Irish will be eternally grateful. Saint Patrick died in Armagh in 461AD after 29 years as Archbishop in that Archdiocese which now has the Primacy of all Ireland. The current Archbishop is known as "Primate of all Ireland. " His job would be to chair all meetings of the Irish Episcopal Conferences and to make sure that faith and morals are taught and upheld by both the religious and civil authorities. The remaining relics of Saint Patrick and his gifts to Ireland There exists a very precious relic of Saint Patrick in Northern Ireland, his incorrupt right hand. This sacred and special relic is, unfortunately, kept in the Ulster Museum and not in a dedicated or special place which is open to pilgrims. Saint Patrick's jaw is kept in a parish church in the Diocese of Down and Connor. His grave is beside the Cathedral of Armagh. Hopefully, one day these relics will be gathered together and incorporated into an International Shrine of Saint Patrick, along with all the other materials, such as books on his life, etc., which show his influence on the entire Catholic Church. To celebrate Saint Patrick's Day, therefore, is to commemorate his life and works and to give thanks to God for the gift of this great saint, while imploring him to intercede on our behalf before the Most Blessed Trinity. According to a legend, Saint Patrick used the shamrock to try to explain how there can be Three Divine Persons in one God, because, as we all know, there are three leaves in one stem on the shamrock. Patrick is also the one who left us with the Celtic Cross. When he began to evangelize he found that many of the pagans had worshiped the sun and so he incorporated the sun into the Latin Cross. Likewise, when he met the Druids, who worshiped a sacred standing stone that was marked with a circle which was symbolic of the moon goddess, he incorporated that also. The Celtic Cross is now world famous and revered by all. Read more:  Ancient Celtic Irish symbols meanings The Celtic Cross envisioned by St. Patrick. Image: Getty. " Saint Patrick's Breastplate ", a prayer of protection written by St. Patrick himself. I arise today Through a mighty strength, the invocation of the Trinity, Through the belief in the threeness, Through confession of the one ness Of the Creator of Creation. I arise today Through the strength of Christ's birth with his baptism, Through the strength of his crucifixion with his burial, Through the strength of his resurrection with his ascension, Through the strength of his descent for the judgment of Doom. I arise today Through the strength of the love of Cherubim, In obedience of angels, In the service of archangels, In hope of resurrection to meet with reward, In prayers of patriarchs, In predictions of prophets, In preaching of apostles, In faith of confessors, In innocence of holy virgins, In deeds of righteous men. I arise today Through the strength of heaven: Light of sun, Radiance of moon, Splendor of fire, Speed of lightning, Swiftness of wind, Depth of sea, Stability of earth, Firmness of rock. I arise today Through God's strength to pilot me: God's might to uphold me, God's wisdom to guide me, God's eye to look before me, God's ear to hear me, God's word to speak for me, God's hand to guard me, God's way to lie before me, God's shield to protect me, God's host to save me From snares of devils, From temptations of vices, From everyone who shall wish me ill, Afar and anear, Alone and in multitude. I summon today all these powers between me and those evils, Against every cruel merciless power that may oppose my body and soul, Against incantations of false prophets, Against black laws of pagandom Against false laws of heretics, Against craft of idolatry, Against spells of witches and smiths and wizards, Against every knowledge that corrupts man's body and soul. Christ to shield me today Against poison, against burning, Against drowning, against wounding, So that there may come to me abundance of reward. Christ with me, Christ before me, Christ behind me, Christ in me, Christ beneath me, Christ above me, Christ on my right, Christ on my left, Christ when I lie down, Christ when I sit down, Christ when I arise, Christ in the heart of every man who thinks of me, Christ in the mouth of everyone who speaks of me, Christ in every eye that sees me, Christ in every ear that hears me. I arise today Through a mighty strength, the invocation of the Trinity, Through belief in the threeness, Through confession of the oneness, Of the Creator of Creation. Amen! Looking for events in your community this St Patrick’s Day or to share further information on the March 17 celebrations in your area? Join our St Patrick’s Day 2019 group and celebrate St Patrick’s Day 2019 in proper Irish style. Do you have St. Patrick's Day news you'd like to share with the global Irish community? Why not join IrishCentral's contributor's platform Irish Voices? You can learn more about it here IrishCentral’s Irish Voices contributor’s platform here and sign up here.

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Introduction Saint Patrick Saint Patrick is the patron saint of Ireland. St Patrick's Day is March 17. St Patrick is traditionally associated with the Shamrock plant, which he used to explain the concept of the Trinity. St Patrick's value doesn't really come from the historical details but from the inspiration of a man who returned to the country where he had been a child slave, in order to bring the message of Christ. Facts in brief St Patrick really existed Taken to Ireland as a slave at age 16 Escaped after 6 years Became a Christian priest, and later a Bishop Returned to Ireland as a missionary Played a major part in converting the Irish to Christianity Some of his writings survive, the Confessio and the Letter to Coroticus Doubtful extra facts in brief Born in 387 AD in Scotland, in Kilpatrick alternative sources suggest he was born at Banwen in Wales His original name was Maewyn Succat; he became Patrick when he became a bishop Studied in France at the monastery of St Martin's in Tours Went to Ireland in 432 AD Died either in 461 AD, or 493 AD (unlikely) Taught by Saint Germaine Patrick's life Patrick's early life Patrick's family lived on a small estate near the village of Bannavem Taburniae. (This name cannot be placed on any current map of England or Wales. ) Although his father was a deacon, Patrick was not a believer: I did not, indeed, know the true God Saint Patrick, Confessio, translated from Latin Enslaved by pirates In his teens, Patrick was captured by a gang of Irish pirates and taken as a slave to Ireland. Patrick came to believe that this was a punishment for his lack of faith. He was put to work for six years herding sheep and pigs on Slemish mountain in County Antrim. While he was a shepherd, Patrick spent much of his time praying. I used to stay out in the forests and on the mountain and I would wake up before daylight to pray in the snow, in icy coldness, in rain, and I used to feel neither ill nor any slothfulness, because, as I now see, the Spirit was burning in me at that time. Escapes after six years In an escape bid (while he was a captive in Ireland), Patrick stowed away on a boat bound for Britain, and it landed not far from where his parents lived. Patrick decided to follow his vocation to become a priest, and after a dream he was inspired to return to Ireland. I seemed to hear the voice of those who were beside the forest of Foclut which is near the western sea, and they were crying as if with one voice: 'We beg you, holy youth, that you shall come and shall walk again among us. Patrick spent several years studying before he felt ready to take up the life of a missionary. Patrick's return to Ireland as a missionary Patrick eventually returned to Ireland, as the country's second bishop, and brought the message of Christ to many people who had never heard it. As a missionary Patrick baptised many thousands of people. It was not an easy task. Patrick tells how his life was at risk, and how he was sometimes imprisoned by the local pagan chiefs. We know that Patrick sometimes made things easier by giving gifts to the chiefs. Poignantly, Patrick also writes of his longing to leave Ireland. How I would have loved to go to my country and my parents, and also to Gaul in order to visit the brethren and to see the face of the saints of my Lord! God knows it! that I much desired it; but I am bound by the Spirit But he knew his duty, and remained in Ireland. Patrick had problems not only with himself, and the local pagans, but suffered from some backbiting by fellow clergy who accused him of seeking to win personal status. The claim nearly broke his heart, but anyone who reads his Confessio will soon realise that Patrick was the last person to think that he deserved any glory for himself. I ought unceasingly to give thanks to God who often pardoned my folly and my carelessness, and on more than one occasion spared His great wrath on me, who was chosen to be His helper and who was slow to do as was shown me and as the Spirit suggested. Patrick's writings Patrick's world Patrick clearly perceived Ireland and Britain to be far apart, but he also perceived Britain and Gaul to be very close. Seeing the world like that is as much a matter of theology as geography. Jerusalem was believed to be the centre of the world and around Jerusalem were countries which were occupied by the Romans. On one particular far-flung corner was the island of Ireland - the last bastion of paganism (as Patrick saw it). Patrick's education Patrick not only knew the language of his British parents but studied and understood Latin. Just how much Latin would have been used in Ireland (so far away from Rome) by that time is uncertain, but in his own writing there is evidence that he was well read in both secular writing and the Scriptures. And in addition to the language of his British parents, and the Latin he learned as a priest, Patrick would have had to speak Irish to communicate God's message to the people. Patrick's mission Patrick believed that when "every nation" had heard the gospel, Christ would then return, and it seems he believed that he was the person to bring this message of Christianity to the land that represented this "final hurdle" of God's plan. In Ireland, probably towards the end of his life, Bishop Patrick wrote about his life and work in the Confessio. He begins: I am the sinner Patrick. I am the most unsophisticated of people, the least of Christians, and for many people I am the most contemptible... I was taken into captivity in Ireland - at that time I was ignorant of the true God - along with many thousand others. This was our punishment for departing from God, abandoning his commandments, and ignoring our priests who kept on warning us about our salvation... St Patrick, Confessio, translated from Latin Myths about Patrick Was Saint Patrick Irish? No he wasn't; he was British. When he was a child, raiders from Ireland came and took him from Britain. In Ireland, he was sold as a slave, and spent about six years tending sheep and pigs around Slemish (a mountain formed from the plug of an extinct volcano just outside Ballymena in what is now Co Antrim). As a stowaway, he returned to his parents, but felt called by God to return to preach to the people of Ireland. Did St Patrick bring Christianity to Ireland? Probably not. There's good evidence that there were believers in Ireland before Patrick arrived. Pope Celestine had sent Palladius to that part of the world years before. Anyway, it would be unlikely that a country with such strong trading links with the Roman Empire would have remained untouched by Christianity. Did St Patrick drive the snakes out of Ireland? No he didn't, because it's unlikely there ever were any snakes in Ireland. The snake may be a reference to serpent, a symbol of evil, and the driving out a reference to Patrick's mission to rid Ireland of pagan influence.

Well, nothing is more metal than hearing a Swedish band named after an American War sing about a fabled Irishman. Free download i am patrick now. This is not your average Christian movie and I like to stretch out. Free download i am patrick m. I AM PATRICK peels back centuries of legend and myth to tell the true story of Saint Patrick. Through historical re-enactments, expert interviews and Patrick’s own writings, witness the journey from man to saint. He murderd 200.000 slaves. Free download i am patrick 10. One of the most underrated actors ever. His range was incredible. Every role he had made each movie better.



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I Am Patrick: The Patron Saint of Ireland - by caehalrade1975, February 18, 2020
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